Anti-Inflammatory Diet

All health care starts with diet. My recommendations for a healthy diet are here:
Anti-Inflammatory Diet and Lifestyle.
There are over 190 articles on diet, inflammation and disease on this blog
(find topics using search [upper left] or index [lower right]), and
more articles by Prof. Ayers on Suite101 .

Thursday, April 5, 2012

Dr. Oz, Vitamins, Biofilms

Vitamins supplement enzyme action, but they are produced by gut flora for biofilm communication.

Dr. Oz and the general biomedical community promote the idea that vitamin supplements or in foods are needed or improve health. Of course, several research studies show that typical multivitamin supplements or the levels of vitamins in "enriched" foods do not provide improvements in health. Since gut flora produce all of the needed vitamins, this should be no surprise. But why do gut bacteria release vitamins needed for the normal functions of the human body?

Vitamins are Enzyme Cofactors

Vitamins are small molecules that bind to particular cellular enzymes and provide functions that can't be provided by proteins. Enzymes are linear strings, polymers, of about a thousand amino acids. The 23,000 human genes code for the sequence of amino acids in as many enzymes. The amino acid strings fold up systematically into three dimensional balls that bring together chemical groups of the amino acids that can catalyze biochemical reactions. The twenty different amino acids in proteins are limited in the scope of their reactions. Binding of some metabolic products, such as vitamins, expands the types of reactions possible. Vitamins are enzyme cofactors. Bacteria can synthesize all of the vitamins needed for metabolism, but humans can't.

Vitamin D is a Hormone

Vitamin D is not a typical vitamin.  It is not an enzyme cofactor, but rather it is a steroid hormone that is produced in the skin from cholesterol through the action of ultraviolet light. The production of antibacterial peptides in the small intestines, for example, is a response of intestinal cells to vitamin D. Exposing arms and legs to sunlight produces about 10,000 IU of vitamin D per minute. (Typical supplements contain only 1,000 IU.) Production of vitamin D is reduced by skin pigmentation, sunscreen and inflammation. People exposed to daily sunlight for hours in San Diego, for example, may still be deficient in vitamin D, if their production of vitamin D has been shut down by chronic inflammation, as indicated by typical inflammatory conditions, such as arthritis, allergies, inflammatory bowel diseases, obesity, dental/oral infections, prostatitis, thyroiditis and other autoimmune diseases.

Vitamins are Produced by Gut Biofilms

People with healthy, diet-adapted gut flora, can subsist on very limited diets without vitamin deficiency diseases, because all of the vitamins can be obtained from bacteria growing in films coating the lining of the gut. These biofilms are complex communities of dozens of different bacteria and fungi. The bacteria synthesize polysaccharides in which these and other bacteria and fungi become embedded. The biofilms release vitamins that are taken up by intestinal cells to provide the needs of the body.

Vitamins are Chemical Signals for Biofilm Assembly

Bacteria, such as E. coli, do not form biofilms, if they are just grown at low concentrations on laboratory nutrients. If the concentrations of bacteria become very high, however, the bacteria respond by activating genes that coordinate biofilm formation. Bacteria detect the presence of other bacteria by releasing and detecting chemical signals in a process called quorum sensing. The chemical signals used in quorum sensing and biofilm maintenance are vitamins. Thus, human intestines are adapted to exploit the presence of biofilms and vitamin secretion. Humans need not synthesize vitamins, because they are always produced by gut biofilms as an essential biofilm function.

Antibiotics and Multivitamin Supplements

Antibiotic use is known to disrupt gut flora and produce vitamin deficiencies. Killing off healthy gut biofilms with casual use of antibiotics should be anticipated. The medical industry is remiss, however, in not repairing gut flora after medically mandated antibiotic use. Probiotics can temporarily supply some of the functions of the hundreds of bacterial species in each healthy individual, but they do not replace complex biofilms.

 The vitamin production of some of the bacterial species eliminated from the gut by antibiotics can be replaced by vitamin supplements, but supplements may disrupt the normal vitamin/quorum sensing communication and further disrupt biofilms. Thus, vitamin supplements may be unhealthy, if they disrupt biofilms that are necessary for healthy function of the gut-based immune system, which is needed to avoid, for example, allergies and autoimmune diseases.

Major Points about Vitamins, Biofilms and Health

  • Health requires gut biofilms to supply vitamins and control the immune system.
  • Biofilms produce and use vitamins for maintenance of biofilms.
  • Eating vitamins may disrupt normal biofilm formation.
  • Antibiotics disrupt gut biofilms and cause vitamin deficiencies and immune system disfunction.
  • Biofilm repair requires ingestion of missing bacterial species (150 total) and may be inhibited by excessive hygiene.

129 comments:

Anonymous said...

Did I just read this right in that vitamin supplementation can disrupt the gut microbiome?

Ok, so aside from maybe using vitamin supplementation temporarily after antibiotic use, do you therefor not generally recommend vitamin supplementation?

I assume none of this applies to mineral needs of the body?

Thank you.

Anek Dodl said...

Dr. Ayers,

My dentist and hygienist find it remarkable that I have no sign of dental bacteria and barely any plaque.

A recent link in a comment on your previous article (http://www.drmyhill.co.uk/wiki/Fermentation_in_the_gut_and_CFS) states: “Dental, gum and mouth problems - one is likely to have similar bacteria in the mouth as the gut. If you have a clean tongue and no dental plaque then you are likely to have good gut flora.” Do you agree?

I currently take NAC, glutathione, L-glutamine, magnesium, potassium, B complex, vitamin C, kelp, Oregon Grape, CoQ10, lysine and a senior probiotic.

Would you recommend I stop taking any or all of them?

I’m currently reading Nick Lane’s “Power, Sex and Suicide: Mitochondria and the Meaning of Life” and realize life is a delicate balance I don’t want to tamper with unnecessarily. Your article has me concerned that I may be doing just that – am I?

Thank you for your continuing support and education.

Mary

Mrs. Ed said...

Very Interesting. I suppose this is referring to a normal, healthy gut flora. What about in autism, when the gut has the wrong types of biofilms? My son kept getting reocurring bouts of anemia. A biofilm protocol and supplements has brought his iron levels back to the mid normal range (and iron wasn't even in the supplements). What about in scurvy or beriberi? Would malnutrition wear down the gut flora, which would them lead to poor vitamin productionZ?

I would love to read more about this, is there any suggested reading regarding your post?

Anonymous said...

"People can subsist on very limited diets without vitamin deficiency diseases, because all of the vitamins can be obtained from bacteria growing in films coating the lining of the gut"

i infer meat would not be necessary then? a vegetarian diet would suffice.

"A person exposed to daily sunlight for hours in San Diego, may still be deficient in vitamin D, if their production of vitamin D has been shut down by chronic inflammation"

caffeine shuts down VDR system. So that would be another very common reason for low vitamin D manufacture in the skin i guess.

-Jake.

Chuck said...

Thanks for the information. If Dr. Oz gets you to post then please watch him often.

You should not feel that writing a blog post obligates you to answer everyone's very specific questions or requests for clarification.

I like the info you provide and it spurs me to learn more.

Thanks

Vicki Keller said...

Does this apply to whole plant based vitamin supplementation from organic food or is this talking about synthetic vitamin supplemention?

I would think if a supplement was produced from a whole plant based (organic) food, and not a synthesized vitamin, it would be the same as eating food full of nutrients and vitamins. Foods (healthy ones as described in the anti-inflamatory diet in this blog) certainly do not disrupt the gut harmony. Same for whole plant/food based minerals I would think.

Dr. Art Ayers said...

Hi Mrs. Ed,
It is nice to hear from you!

I think that one major way to damage gut biofilms and gut flora is with abrupt changes in simple diets. Shifting from meat to vegetables or from one kind of predominant vegetable to another, for example, would not be healthy. It might be very disruptive to take a long trip and eat only stored food to which you and your gut flora have not been previously adapted.

Autism is a disease of the gut and gut flora. Some successful treatments include total bowel irrigation that also strips existing gut biofilms with PEG. I would expect the addition of a fecal transplant from a healthy donor outside of the family, to be very effective.

My speculation that vitamins are quorum sensing signals was confirmed by searching the biomedical literature to see if vitamins blocked the corresponding receptors. Lo and behold, a different vitamin was found to be used with each different bacterium in common gut biofilms.

I would also expect that plants accumulate some vitamins as protection against pathogenic biofilms and end up as vitamin rich foods featured on Dr. Oz's shows.

Thanks for following my meanderings.

Anonymous said...

Very sensible stuff. esp regarding avoidance of vitamins. although i'm reading such a concept for the first time it rings as true.

Just imagine a Hollywood studio behind you to take your message to every home in 3D animation hahaha.

-Jake

Dr. Art Ayers said...

Anon,
Food is a good source of minerals.

I think that vitamins should be used to temporarily compensate for a problem in diet or after damaging biofilms, but should not be needed routinely.

I just take specific vitamins, such as vit.D3 to compensate for sloppy eating or vit. C to compensate for any extra oxidative stress that I may be producing, such as excess exposure to the sun. I think that most phytochemicals that are lauded as antioxidants are also toxic to other bodily functions. Plants are not safe, just because they are natural. All plants produce very toxic defensive compounds.

In general, it is more effective to maintain your gut flora rather than attempt to compensate for deficiencies by using supplements.

Thanks for your questions/comments.

Dr. Art Ayers said...

Mary,
I don't know what is going on in your gut, so it is hard to tell if you need supplements to compensate for gut flora problems.

The goal, from my perspective, is to cultivate gut flora that permit health without supplements.

Dental health is a reflection of overall health and may relate to good gut health. I wouldn't conclude that good oral health also demonstrates that the gut flora is healthy. I would also check for any signs of chronic inflammation prior to a least age 80.

The supplements that you take seem to be a wise choice to compensate for various sources of inflammation and gut damage. Most should also be prophylactic, but the B vitamins are biofilm signals.

I would counsel against sudden changes in supplements, because biofilms are very adaptive and can compensate for most dietary problems. The adaptations may, however, be very slow, so the changes may be problematic.

Thanks for your comments.

Asim said...

Dr. Ayers,

In relation to anti-biotic usage, should one worry about anti-biotic usage in animals that are eaten as it relates to damaging our own gut flora? Or do you believe cooking effectively negate this problem?

Can't wait for some articles on sleep and inflammation from yuor perspective...

- Asim

Jeremy said...

Dr Ayers, Can you recommend a probiotic for those trying to rebuild gut bacteria and biofilms?

Anonymous said...

Thats interesting so we might suffer B-Complex withdrawal too? i wonder how that might look?

i've been taking some of those supplements :-(

Do you have any knowledge about anti helminths like alendazole or pyrantel in respect to their effects on gut biofilms?

i've been feeling extremely hungry yet not sure what to eat, seem to be losing muscle after taking 1 400 mg albendazole coming from high carb SAD to lacto vegetarianism. Protein deficiency? hypoglycemia? :-(

i've started eating more yogurt from today.

any recommendations?

-jake

Anonymous said...

nd ive also stopped drinking peppermint tea recently. could the hunger pangs be due to withdrwal from it?

it is a funny hungry, i feel it in my throat not stomach and causes light headedness.

i never smoke or drink though.

Thankfully i dont have anxiety since stopping caffeine.

is it just funny gut flora growth due to excessive vitamins and minerals?

-jake.

Enrique C. said...

Gut flora can't produce minerals, vitamin A, C, E, probably the vitamin K is not even usable.

So you cant't live out of your gut flora and fiber, but it can help providing you with some B vitamins and other nutrients like SCFAs.

The idea of avoiding supplements might do more harm than good, IMHO, unless you correctly implement a diet that includes all nutrients without deficiencies, both micro and macro.

Most "paleo" advice in my opinion, is flawed because it promotes hypothyroidism, oxidative stress (too much fat, AA, and oxidized fat and damaged food components due to bad cooking, everything in the context of 6-delta desaturase deficiency) and nutrient deficiencies because they tend to dismiss the value of plants to provide nutrients.

If you avoid supplements, then avoid Liver, because it's extremely rich in nutrients too.

Something off topic, but really important is Vitamin A, which works in tandem with Vitamin D. Supplementing only vitamin D may do more harm than good, specially in the long run. BTW Vitamin K is also needed for the Vitamin K dependent proteins (thanks Chris Masterjohn).

Vitamin A is ESSENTIAL for mucosal immunity. Dr Ayers hopefully you can write about this important vitamin in the near feature.

In my case, I think I started to get receding gums after some time of Vitamin D3 supplementation. After adding Vitamin A in a proper ratio with Vitamin D, the problem resolved.

JanelleH said...

Dr. Ayers,

Your blog is so interesting! your ideologies seem so different, and I like that! I was hoping maybe you could help me figure out my acid reflux condition. I am 28 weeks pregnant and it started a few weeks after a night of horrible nausea and indigestion that also caused a racing heart after eating, which resolved after a few days of rest. I have tried figuring out what exactly caused it, after my meal of chinese food I took a small glass of apple cider vinegar in water with some diatemaceous earth supposedly good for minerals, it also has the ability of wiping out parasites and thats when my battle with my stomach began 2 months ago.

A nutritionist said not to rule out H. Pylori, but from reading your posts on it you seem to be of the opinion that most people have it and are asympotmatic.. maybe I wiped out something in my stomach causing a very bad reaction? I have taken things since then to try and eliminate any infections and heal my stomach like zinc l-carnosine, mastic gum, and raw manuka honey. I thought I was having some success with the zinc, but then it got bad again a couple days ago. I know that pregnancy is going to cause some relaxation of the LES but I wouldn't think it would also cause indigestion and nausea with meals, I know thats not a normal symptom of pregnancy. I can't handle taking HCL so I have not tried anything aggressive in terms of upping stomach acid. The only probiotics I've gotten is through Kombucha and raw milk lately. I would appreciate any insight you have!
Thanks so much

Anonymous said...

Love reading your posts.

I currently have rosacea, some eczema, dry skin etc. I have had a terrible diet since I was very young. Always a picky eater and wouldn't touch a lot of healthy foods.

I have started the anti-inflammatory diet last week, and am supplementing with with fish oil, glucosamine,vitamin D, Coq10, primrose oil, apple cider vinegar tablets and kombucha tea everyday. Also started taking anti-histamines daily.

Is the above sufficient enough to try and concur my skin ailments? I'm 22, and just looking for advice. Any suggestions for me? Advice? Appreciated!

Anek Dodl said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Anonymous said...

i read more and my symptoms seem to be related to caffeine withdrawal mainly since stopping it 3-4 days back. what a trip!

what about vitamin B3? does it also affect the gutflora? what do you think about taking a b-complex a day?

so you use vit c and caffeine to protect yourself from the sun yet use vit d to get the benefits of the sun? this runs counter intuitive to the basic principle in your idea of just letting gut flora generate all the vitamins. similarly let sun exposure decide your vit d status alone. no?

-Jake

Medjoub said...

Dr. Ayers -

Wouldn't seasonal eating constitute something like an "abrupt shift" in diet? I would think that hunter-gather/nomadic peoples (perhaps even early ag)would've had very inconsistent dietary patterns, changing by region, availability, and season. Obviously that 'fact', if it is one, doesn't argue for the superiority of such a diet but does suggest some kind of potential for adaptability. Perhaps constant exposure to parasites and manifold bacteria is enough to override any of the problematic effects of sudden dietary change.

Having traveled and experimented with diets a great deal, I definitely notice dramatic digestive changes according to diet composition/locale. Personally, the worst was the transition from a very low-carb, predominantly meat diet to a more heterogenous diet allowing for a variety of plants. It took several weeks, but my digestion eventually returned to normal (for me - which still might be an abnormal state for many).

I find it interesting that there are so many drastically - and subtly - contrasting suggested diets, even in the given tiny circle of interested, knowledgable science bloggers. Still, so many of us are struggling to find the "right" one -- and just can't quite seem to do it. I imagine that this either reflects the incomplete state of our epistemology or that some damage simply can't be repaired.

Vitamins said...

By "excessive hygiene" I assume you are referring to the overuse of hand sanitizer which kills not only the bad germs but the good germs as well!

Pieter said...

Enrique C,

Your comment caught my attention.

I have seborrheic dermatitis since age 20 (I only changed my way of eating when I was 30, so that is certainly not the cause).

I'm currently investigating if this could be due to 6-delta desaturase deficiency.

Could you tell me more about 6-delta desaturase deficiency, and how you would change eating pattern to "handle" this.

Thanks in advance.

Pieter

Vitamins for Skin said...

It is amazing how after decades of research, we are still learning about the importance of vitamins in the body.

Todd Platzer said...

What is a protocol to develop a good, healthy gut flora? Apparently this is the most important thing, and you recommend maintaining it, but how to create it or check that it's functioning well?

Todd Platzer said...

Hi Dr. Ayers,
I listened to your interview with Billy Moore and I agree the future of healthcare will be in preventive medicine, the economic situation may force this on us, but ultimately the prospect of cutting up to 90% of the healthcare budget is enough to grab anyones attention.
Is research, therefore, on all of the bacteria found in the gut and the function of each, along with their symbiotic functions, being undertaken? Is a more palatable approach to bacteriotherapy, or fecal transplant, being developed to elicit universal support? (for example the appropriate bacteria in pill form taken orally or as a suppository)
I am under the impression this science is in its infancy. I look forward to your views. As a future public health practitioner I find your work fascinating and relevant.

Enrique said...

Pieter,

I found that seborrheic dermatitis (which I also have since I was also around 20, mild) is caused by a "bad" gut flora.

I found that people with SB have high counts of yeast in their stools. Your flora influences the oiliness and other characteristics of the skin, and I bet 6-delta-desaturase expression too. I found a few months ago that taking high quality enteric coated garlic pills 3 times per day with meals, cured acne and dandruff *completely*. But you have to keep taking them, and I would advice the use of high quality probiotics and after some time, fermented foods.

Fermented foods can make things worse initially for some, because they contain yeast and will cause additional reactions probably due to gene transfer. Some people have reported getting dandruff from kefir that disappears after a while (probably flora reshaping).


Yeast like Candida can destroy the protective SIgA produced by the gut through proteases. Causing increased translocation of toxins and the organisms themselves.

This is a big topic but this is my recommendation:

- Follow an antiinflammatory diet (the one recommended in this blog)
- Take chelated zinc, p5p (b6), magnesium (chelated)
- Eat fish with Omega 3 and/or krill oil
- Take GLA from Borage Seed Oil (this promotes the creation of antiinflamatory prostaglandids), probably 300 mg or more per day with food
- Take enteric coated garlic pills with each meal, a total of 3 per day
- Vitamin A (preformed) for gut integrity, 10,000 IU per day (probably people like use need more)
- Vitamin D3, 2,000-4,000 IU per day or more depending on your needs
- Add a good non-yeast probiotic

This should greatly reduce or completely erradicate the problem.

Ray Peat on his own, related dandruff to food intolerance, Vitamin A deficiency (and I would say dysbiosis).

There's much to talk about this...

Cristian said...

l-Glutamine regulates amino acid utilization by intestinal bacteria

http://suppversity.blogspot.it/2012/04/use-glutamine-to-heal-gut-and-hinder.html

Todd P said...

Hi All,
To answer my previous question, and if anyone is interested, there is a concerted effort underway to identify and describe the microflora of the gut and other body locations, it is called the Human Microbiome Project and is funded at $115 million for 5 years beginning in 2008.

Anonymous said...

confused a little regarding biofilms.. I've read in your posts that using natto (enzyme) is beneficial for breaking up "bad" biofilms and cleaning out other nasty stuff from your system. But wouldn't natto also affect the "good" that you want to keep? I've supplemented with this in the past...

Rebecca Magliozzi said...

So what do you do if both your kids have an autoimmune disease like PANDAS or rheumatic fever, where you have to use Antibiotics to protect their hearts or brains from getting damaged by their own immune systems?

Unknown said...

Inflammation is the result of the body trying to protect us from illness and is normally perfectly normal as the white blood cells and chemicals are sent to fight of the invaders.

Inflammation symptoms

Anonymous said...

Since 1) we get bacteria from others, 2) a person's bacteria is altered by diet/obesity, and 3) bacteria from obese person will cause a thin person to gain weight, is there some sense in which obesity has a bacterially "contagious" factor?

Anonymous said...

Dr. Ayers,

I can think of many examples of observations that seem inconsistent with your assertion that a healthy gut can produce all the vitamins required and would like to get your opinion on just a couple of them.

Regarding vitamin C: When Weston Price visited the American Indians in the northern Yukon who existed completely on their traditional diet which was devoid of carbohydrates, he asked one of them if they ever got scurvy as the white men living in the Yukon often did. The Indian replied that they could get scurvy but they knew how to prevent it. After getting permission form the chief, the Indian demonstrated how they removed and ate the adrenal gland of the moose (a main part of their diet) to avoid scurvy. Price subsequently determined that adrenal glands are very high in vitamin C.

Question: Why did the Indians, who were the picture of robust health, need to eat vitamin C to prevent scurvy if their gut can make vitamin C?

Regarding vitamin K2. The Heidelberg study determined dietary intake of vitamin K2 of thousands of men and evaluated the effect of intake of vitamin K1 and K2 on risk of prostate cancer over a period of eight years. It was found the risk of advanced prostate cancer was inversely related to vitamin K2 intake. The lowest quartile of K2 intake had a 250% increased risk of advanced prostate cancer compared to the highest quartile. Intake of vitamin K1 had no effect on risk.

Cheese is high in K2 and more than half the K2 intake of participants came from cheese. It was also found that advanced prostate cancer risk was independently inversely related to cheese intake.

The validity of the vitamin K intake estimates was supported by measurement of activated osteocalcin which is a measure of vitamin K status.

It was concluded that intake ofvitamin K2 reduced the risk of advanced prostate cancer. Subsequently is was also found that K2 greatly reduced risk of lung caner mortality. Apparently K2 reduces the progression of these two cancers.

Why would those who consumed very little cheese (and hence little K2) be at such high risk for advanced prostate cancer of their gut can make all the K2 they need?

Unknown said...

Very interesting many thanks, I presume your readers would likely want more reviews along these lines continue the great effort.
Raspberry ketone

Unknown said...

Excellent post. I was checking constantly this blog and I am impressed! Extremely helpful information particularly the last part I care for such information much. I was seeking this particular info for a long time. Thank you and best of luck.
Green Coffee Bean Extract

Unknown said...

Some of my favorite vitamins have come from solaray and I think they the best brand out there. I can see myself keeping the same routine for a long while.

joints said...

Such great study to tackle. I love reading it.

K.M. Bellal Hossain Bappi said...

Thanks For The Resourceful Element.Looking forward to get more articles from you.

Vitamins
Supplements
Sports Nutrition
Health-Food
Organic Grocery
Natural-Foods

majkinetor said...

The notion that bacteria can synthesize enough vitamin C is nonsensical. There is only one paper 30 years ago from Japanese scientist that show some bacteria indeed produce some very small amounts of C, around 5mg/day, which may be enough only to delay scurvy (its was very hard in old times to prevent scurvy on boats, even with lemons on board etc.)

Its also questionable how much of those vitamins are actually used by the body and what is lost in feces - for instance you can make animals deficient by preventing coprophagy.

The notion that you don't need vitamins because gut microbiota produce it is product of wild imagination. I don't doubt changes in the microbiota produce changes in vitamin profile but food, not microbiota is dominant factor here, microbiota production probably only delays ultimate deficiencies.

Also, the claim that multivitamins do not produce measurable effects on health is cherry picking. There are far more positive outcomes then negative ones. I read this blog to have alternative views but so far arguments are not compelling.

Wright-Retirement.com said...

i went to the university of colorado boulder undergrad and Ph.D. studies in Health Economics at Lund University in Sweden. Small world! I happen to manufacture vitamins for the skin and health. http://www.ozsupplement.com and on amazon too http://amzn.to/1kc1OOs, if you want to do an interview on google hangouts on healthcare for my podcast lets do it? email me wrightpict at hotmail com

Unknown said...

vitamin information
What a blog post!! Very informative and also easy to understand. Looking for more such comments!! Do you have a facebook? I recommended it on digg. The only thing that it’s missing is a bit of new design.

سما احمد said...

enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz
enjz

Smith said...

The entire information is really good and some good insights available. Looking forward to do more clicks.
vit c and lysine

James Williams said...

Very nice blog, Thanks for sharing great article.
You are providing wonderful information, it is very useful to us.
Keep posting like this informative articles.
Thank you.

From: Field Engineer
Get to know about A Cisco ASA Specialist.

Abdul Moid said...



Managed Cisco services
From improvements in Security, Manageability, and Flexibility, you can keep your daily operations more organized and easier to use with Managed Cisco Services.

office.com/setup said...

Hоw dо ореn-ѕоurсе рrоduсtіvіtу ѕuіtеѕ compare tо MS Office - аnd dоеѕ іt mаkе ѕеnѕе fоr уоur оrgаnіzаtіоn tо сhооѕе frее соmmunіtу software rаthеr thаn Microsoft's commercially licensed оffеrіng? www.office.com/setup www.office.com/setup

Sophia Smith said...

You made such an very helpful and useful piece to read, giving every topic info enlightenment for us to gain knowledge many peoples. Thanks for sharing the such niche information with everyone to read this. thank you and good luck. Assignment Help Australia -
Assignment Help Adelaide -
Assignment Help Brisbane

Kevin Wick said...

Accounting assignment help allows you to connect with experts and get effective assistance for your project submission. Don’t forget to check out all the features before buying the services of online assignment help for your accounting papers.

Michael Jones said...

If you are also juggling between professional and academic commitments then you can go for instant assignment help online. There is no shame in asking pay someone to do my online class.
Assignment Help US
reword my essay

harryparker0123 said...

If you have encountered the QuickBooks Error Code H505 on your device, it could be due to incorrect hosting configuration settings. The system firewall can also be the reason that you are unable to access the company files as it may block incoming or outgoing communication. To fix this problem, you can contact the QuickBooks support team and get instant technical help. It is always suggested to make sure that you choose the authentic source for installation of QuickBooks software; else, you will always be in trouble. Get in touch with the team now, and know the best possible solution to fix the QuickBooks error.

PNJ Sharptech said...

Kick-start your business by attracting Millions of visitors to your website. Hire us for result-driven website development services in India and get a compelling website that is Mobile friendly, Easy to navigate, Beautiful, Fast, & Affordable Website Design. Guaranteed 100% Satisfaction. Connect with Pnjsharptech, Explore from our range of 1000s of website designs, and Get started today!

Kevin Wick said...

Accounting assignment help allows you to connect with experts and get effective assistance for your project submission. Don’t forget to check out all the features before buying the services of online assignment help for your accounting papers.

aleon jhon said...

Media Access Control or MAC address is used to filter the wireless access to a router. HP printer MAC address is a security feature that helps in preventing or allowing the specific addresses to connect to the wireless router.

Lakshya chauhan said...

nice blog
cash app wont let me send money
apple pay to cash app
paypal to cash app

James Thomas said...

Why Cash app won't let me send money? How can I resolve the technical woe of the cash app account? There can be various problems that users face when using for money transfer. If you feel stuck with the issues then ask your queries any time of the day. Our experts will assist you in solving your problems with ease.

James Thomas said...

Clients who need to send cash from apple pay to cash app then yes they can do it and the cash will get inside 1 to 3 business days. Be that as it may, make sure you can't straightforwardly move cash from apple pay to cash application as you need to do it just on the off chance that you connected your boycott account with the two applications.

James Thomas said...

Exploring the methods to get money off the cash app without a card is essential. The appropriate use of the cash app relies upon its capacity. Thus is clients should be careful in using the Cash app account. Aside from these; clients can likewise contact the help cash app executive to receive the working guidance. They help their clients efficiently to allow them to get rid of the problems quickly.

andre rushell said...

Particular issues stop the Facebook account function and clients couldn't discover it for their utilization. Thus, individuals should realize the strategies to take advantage of the Facebook forgot password choice. This is a significant component of issues that may be capable to make numerous issues out of nowhere way. Consequently, they can take the assistance of the executives who attempt to give proven solution services.

andre rushell said...

The tech glitches with the printing machine might be handled by requesting service team. The right coordination with the hp support assistant is vital for an effective solution. They are able as far as offering support to their clients when they contact them. This is a significant factor to forestall issues in the work environment because hp printer problems might be accountable for multiple unexpected issues.

andre rushell said...

There can be various purposes for the cash out on Cash app misfire. The reasons take after you have lacking resources, the card gets completed, any approaching portion there, frail web association, etc along these lines, to avoid an issue in the creation portion, you need to ensure every one of the things.

Elinathomas said...

As a result, this post will assist you in resolving the Netflix error 40104. You can encounter the error if you use a third-party network such as a VPN, so make sure you have a secure internet connection.Netflix Contact

trendtoreview said...

Your post is very helpful and information is reliable. I am satisfied with your post. Thank you so much for sharing this wonderful post.
KatMovieHD
50 most popular women
Best Wine Brands In India
Difference Between OOP And POP

trendtoreview said...

Your post is very helpful and information is reliable. I am satisfied with your post. Thank you so much for sharing this wonderful post.
KatMovieHD
50 most popular women
Best Wine Brands In India
Difference Between OOP And POP

Brayden Mathews said...

Felt blessed and satisfied after reading your published blog. It was quite easy for me to understand and learn your prescribed teachings. So, I would like to thank you for this. Besides, if you encounter QuickBooks Error OL-301, you should feel free to browse our website. Over there you will find many knowledge-based contents that will help you to fix every technical glitch in no time.

Elinathomas said...

Often, using the browser's configuration, upgrade the router. Another thing you should do to improve your wifi is to keep your wireless and modem apart.Netflix Contact

Kevin Wick said...

Students must avail of online assignment help service if they want to hire someone to do my assignment. Grab academic writing services to boost your knowledge as well as marks efficiently.

Ora A said...

Today, more than ever, people are dealing with excessive levels of stress and anxiety. Fortunately, there are many options available for those who suffer from one or more. You do not have to live an overly anxious life, nor do you have to be plagued by constant panic attacks. There is help available. You just need to know where to find it. X Videos Bitcoin Internet Speed Test

Quicken Error Support | Quicken Customer Service said...

If you want to receive Capital One 360 Quicken access code. Now, you are wondering how to do it? You need to know that the code is provided so that no one can access your password. It helps you to protect your account information. You can obtain the access code in the following manner. Initially, you have to log in to the Capital One website and click over ‘My Info’. Then, opt for the ‘Access Code’ option to create your code. If this doesn’t help you to get the code, you can contact us and we may assist you.

Sophia Smith said...

I was surfing internet today and fortunately came across this website blogs and I really found very interesting content info here. Its really educational to read for many users like me. I enjoyed a lot. Thanks for sharing this wonderful this niche information. types of expository essays -
law assignment help -
argumentative essay help

Info Captain said...

If you want to read about best comment on girl pic then I am going to tell here some top most comment here.

Neobay said...

ngobrolgame A lightweight android emulator after that which might be a suitable reference for those of you who want to set up an android emulator on the PC feature, namely Droid4k. download ldplayer 2021 The following application is very useful for close friends who want to play games or run the Andrioid benefits on a PC. ngobrolgame's Its added capabilities with an attractive user interface are among the following features of the software.

draganjan said...

To find out how to contact the Cash App customer service phone number

Contact your financial support team to report fraud on your account. You can find instructions for contacting the customer service phone number of the cash application. Contact cash app customer service phone number customer service to request a refund. However, to speak with a financial support representative, contact support via the cash app, cash.app/help or our phone line. However, when you can visit the website. https://www.online-digihub.com/payment/cash-app-customer-service

draganjan said...

Why users need Facebook contact number
Users need Facebook contact number if they unable to get the solution through Facebook’s contact support option. In this case, only an experienced representative can provide the best and proper solution to its user's issues. We are the best third-party Facebook customer service provider and offer the best solution. https://www.online-digihub.com/social-media/facebook-customer-service

Tech2review said...

Your post is very helpful and information is reliable. I am satisfied with your post. Thank you so much for sharing this wonderful post.
Best GBA Games
how to delete sent mail from receiver's inbox in gmail
VIPBox
Roblox Error Code 277

AskOfficial said...

Bookkeeping Services New York
Bookkeeping Services Atlanta
Bookkeeping Services Nashville

Rian said...

Have the budgets necessary to produce high-quality content and they also have years of experience in keeping live audiences engaged. how to write a work biography on yourself and reply to appreciation email from client

windikartika said...

What is the chime customer service number?


You can easily find the chime customer service on the official website. However, you will only be able to talk with a live person at chime on the business days that too in the daytime. Apart from this, you can send a message from an app or website to get a reliable solution from the team. https://www.monktech.us/chime-customer-service-number.html

windikartika said...

Contact chime customer service executives to solve your issue promptly:

chime customer service is offering round-the-clock support for their users. If you are unable to create an account on chime or facing any other issue, you can instantly contact chime customer support centers for help. Our professionals will ensure to fix your problem quickly. https://www.monktech.us/chime-customer-service-number.html

Tech Confrence said...

Download free IPTV channel M3U Playlist URL files. Watch free streaming Fluxus TV channels, movies, TV shows, live sports, and news.

PNJ Sharptech said...

Getting next-generation website development services in India is an increasing need for online businesses today. It adds features to a website that makes it engaging, easy to navigate, and well-structured for the visitors. A good website design attracts new visitors but a great website development service help in converting visitors into loyal customers.

Florence said...



I started on COPD Herbal treatment from Ultimate Health Home, the treatment worked incredibly for my lungs condition. I used the herbal treatment for almost 4 months, it reversed my COPD. My severe shortness of breath, dry cough, chest tightness gradually disappeared. Reach Ultimate Health Home via their website www.ultimatelifeclinic.com I can breath much better and It feels comfortable!

Global Translation Help said...

Are you looking for Translation Services Boston? If yes, then Global Translation Help is the ultimate platform where you can get Boston Translation Services at affordable prices. We have native translators who have proficiency in more than 200 languages. We provide online translation help in Boston cities like Worcester, Springfield, Lowell, Cambridge, New Bedford, Brockton, Quincy, and all others.

Emberly Joe said...

It is fact that Writing a conclusion is one of the challenging tasks, it becomes more difficult when it comes to sophisticated topic. In such cases you can have some help of the Conclusion Generator Online. You can check the detailed information of the same from here.

Ian Bell said...

The Industrial Hemp Market is projected to grow at a CAGR of 34% from USD 4.6 billion in 2019 to USD 26.6 billion by 2025. The growth of this market is attributed to the increased consumption of hemp-based products due to their various health benefits and increased incidences of diseases such as epilepsy and other sleep disorders. However, the complex regulatory structure for the usage of industrial hemp in different countries is expected to hinder the market growth of industrial hemp.

cloud hosting services said...

Check the various circumstances that may result in QuickBooks sync Manager Error or stop working or discontinued. Follow the full blog where we have discussed some methods to fix the issue, Dial 8559483651.

Ankit Ron said...

I was really happy to find this game eventually. Really informative and inoperative, Thanks for the post and effort! Please keep sharing more such blogs. Ludo Online Game

majortotositepro said...

I like what you guys are usually up too. This type of clever work and coverage! Keep up the good works guys I’ve included you guys to blogroll. 메이저사이트

racesiteinfo said...

It’s going to be end of mine day, however before end I am reading this wonderful article to increase my experience. 경마

oncasinositeinfo said...

As a Newbie, I am permanently exploring online for articles that can help me. Thank you 온라인카지노

totopickpro said...

You should take part in a contest for one of the best blogs on the web. I will recommend this site! 토토

Anjali Kaur said...

Hey there, the name is Varsha Patil and I am a 21-year-old independent call girl. Those who are interested in enjoying a real flavor of life, please join me. I am expert in providing loving and memorable moments to my clients.

Relationship
Call girls
Call girl
Female
Call girls for party
Hotel call girls
Model
Incall girls
Outcall girls
Escort service
Female call girls service
Erotic massage
Call girls number
Call girl number

SmithRed said...



Assignment Help Birmingham

PhD. holders, Master’s degree graduates, and writing experts at Best Assignment Experts are perfect for Assignment Help Birmingham . They use their experience in a manner so that students from any field of academic study get an A+ grade.

bella smith said...

Find a system to easily connect to the Robinhood customer service team:

Everyone tries their best to find the system that may empower them to easily connect to the Robinhood customer service team. Trading practices have taken a front space and most people are inclined to it to earn financial assistance. But Robinhood customer has to go through unpredicted troubles when they realize that their trading app is not working effectively. This is why they should take ideas to reach out to the solution edge quickly.

nova smith said...

Cash App Customer Service Phone Number-fix tech issues at once:

Fixing the tech issues is the foremost factor if you are a cash app user. Sometimes, the functionalities of the cash app account do not allow users to perform transactional activities effectively. Thus, cash app users must find enough piece of information related to solution strategy. Cash app users may converse to tech service providers through the Cash App Customer Service Phone Numbe.

Smart Marketing said...

You should approach the troubleshooting experts of the Cash App department. Here, you will come to know Will Cash App Refund Money If Scammed. Luckily, these professionals will provide you with the best troubleshooting assistance so that you can handle your problems in a couple of seconds.

Trade Flock said...

Thank you! I really enjoyed your post I want to share with you all a useful source Online Business Magazine is the best online business platform for the leaders, executives of leading companies & Industry. Visit our website for more information.

Marie Orpos said...

HP Wireless Printer Setup

Connecting a printer over a USB cable is pretty easy. But connecting a wireless printer can become very challenging quite often. Follow the HP wireless printer setup process to install it in no time.

1. Take the printer out of the box and remove all tapes from it before starting.
2. Plug in the power cord, turn on the printer and install the print cartridges. Allow your printer to complete its startup routine, which includes printing of an alignment page (if applicable).
3. Go to the manufacturer's website and download drivers for your printer model.
4. Install the drivers and follow the instructions during hp wireless printer setup process.
5. In the meantime, go to printer's control panel and use wireless printer setup wizard.
6. Identify your wifi network and connect the printer to it using its correct credential.
7. Complete the wireless printer setup process by connecting to your printer model as it would appear during installation.


hp wireless printer setup

Marie Orpos said...

Canon printer support phone number

Canon wireless printer setup is very easy if compared with other available printers in the market. In case of any problem or confusion, canon printer support phone number is easy to get from the supplied manual. Follow canon printer setup process to install canon wireless printer.

1. Take the printer out of the box and remove all tapes from it before starting.
2. Plug in the power cord, turn on the printer and install the print cartridges. Allow your printer to complete its startup routine, which includes printing of an alignment page (if applicable).
3. Go to the manufacturer's website and download drivers for your printer model.
4. Install the drivers and follow the instructions during canon wireless printer setup process.
5. In the meantime, go to priter's control panel and use wireless printer setup wizard.
6. Identify your wifi network and connect the printer to it using its correct credential.
7. Complete the wireless printer setup process by connecting to your printer model as it would appear during installation.


canon printer support number

Marie Orpos said...

Brother Printer Setup

We are one of the most reliable, and independent 3rd party printer technical support and service providers, providing 24/7 online or on-call technical support services to the users of brother printer at a very nominal charge. Our printer experts have extensive knowledge to set up brother wireless printer in the simple ways. For brother printer setup, you can call our Brother printer support experts 24/7.

Brother Printer Support

Marie Orpos said...

Pogo games not loading

Check for correct User Name or Screen Name. Most of the time we rely on the browser’s auto-complete feature and select wrongly entered screen name in the past.
Passwords are case sensitive. Therefore, always check the letter’s cases of the entered password. If possible, type the password as you use in a notepad and then copy and paste the letters in the password field. Below is a list of things you should always check before entering into troubleshooting.
1. If any of your family member shares the same account, ask them if they might have changed the screen name or password.
2. Look into your email inbox to get the actual screen name when you had registered with Pogo
3. If you find any point relevant to your case, you can go to the article explaining how to reset password of your Pogo account and follow all the steps carefully to reset your pogo account password.


pogo.com/sign in problems

Marie Orpos said...

Gmail not working

When your email stops working or gets hacked, don’t panic. Call Email Support Phone Number and let the highly skilled Specialists get you up running.
Troubleshooting steps you can try to fix basic email problems:
1: Make sure you’re connected to the web.
2: Close the app, then reopen it.
3: Sign out, then sign back in.
4: Clearing the cookies and history of browser
5: Check your browser extensions or applications and remove unwanted extensions


Gmail not receiving email

Perez Johnson said...

Role of cash app support phone number:

The present time is of the technology and this why, every people is choosing the cash app to transfer their money online. But the technical issues have not left any of the online platforms alone. And the cash app gets impacted. Thus cash app users need to stay connected with the service team. They can take the help of a cash app support phone number to have with service professionals.

Tourtoreview said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Tourtoreview said...

Thank you! I really enjoyed your post I want to share with you all a useful source. things to do in Charlotte NC Tourtoreview will tell you 15 free yet amazing things to do in Charlotte, NC (North Carolina). From engaging in exciting things-to-do, sightseeing, and exploring impressive tourist attractions, there is a lot to do in this wonderful city.

Sarah Winget said...

Not every student can can plan papers in accounting, particularly when the person has a few things to be dealt with. The mix of good writing abilities and research is needed to achieve such a task. Our expert assignment writers are really mindful of the relative multitude of helpful insider facts utilized in the text of finance and accounting. essay writing help

Total Assignment Help said...

assignment help online
Academic Assignment Help
Academic Assignment Help
do my assignment
do my assignment
assignment help services
assignment help services
assignment assistance
assignment assistance

Jimmy Walter said...

We are a leading company for all your Assignment Help need. We have the world's best team who can give you the top-quality assignment help online solution. Call us right now and discuss your assignment requirement with our experts! Write my Assignment

Quickbooks error said...

Is it accurate to say that you are managing the QuickBooks blunder 15106? Are you managing the quickbooks error 15106 ? QuickBooks Mistake 6123 happens when you attempt to bring back the back-up of an organization record. Clients of QuickBooks ordinarily manage the QuickBooks update botch H505. Simply survey to Technique to Resolve the QuickBooks Mistake ... People of QuickBooks ordinarily manage the QuickBooks update blunder H505.

GamesBuild said...

Build Luo Yi Tersakit 2021 sebagai hero mage game yang barusan launching di season 16 ini yang mana dapat didapat dengan gratis pada moment 515. Hero dengan role mage ini memilki kemampuan tempat dengan damage tinggi, cooldown yang cepat dan kemampuan teleport yang membuat Luo Yi pasti akan bagus dalam timfight atau ganking.

Kemampuan 1 (Dispersion) dari Luo Yi akan memberinya damage ke beberapa musuh dan memunculkan dampak Ying/Yang berganti-gantian. Kemampuan 2 (Rotation) akan mengakibatkan dampak Ying/Yang di suatu tempat. Dengan pasifnya, 2 hero musuh yang bersisihan dan mempunyai dampak Ying/Yang bakal terserang stun dan damage tambahan.
Build Karina Savage tersakit
Mobile Legends
Build Vale Tersakit 2021
Build Karina Tersakit 2021
Build Lunox Tersakit 2021
Build Franco Tersakit 2021

Quickbooks error said...

QuickBooks Error 3371 Status Code 11118 is a QuickBooks series mistake that emerges because of adulterated, lost, or tainted organization documents

Tech Confrence said...

Are you want to know about some best attitude names for instagram for girl then your search is over. We provide some most popular attitude names for instagram for girl with some stylish attitude name for girl and some most popular user name for instagram for girl .

Assignment Help said...

Do not come back in the interaction of more dilemmas. Read out this post and over enjoyed it as much as you can. It would be good to visit on our website and decide the valuable factors to give new wings with Online Assignment Help service. By doing so, you will get some positivism in your future.

Trillium Health Solutions said...

However, in some cases, it has been found that these antibiotics are not effective enough to eradicate all traces of the bacterium from the human body, which means antibiotics are not a super effective treatment for Lyme disease.
Lyme disease diet, post treatment Lyme disease syndrome, Lyme disease treatment

Costa Rica vacation rentals for large groups said...

Costa Rica is a famous vacation spot because to its extensive lengths of white sand beaches. In the villas, you'll find family-friendly amenities. If you're looking for peace and relaxation, fun and entertainment, and adventures while on vacation with your family, this is the place to go. The beautiful white sands of this location are well-known. Costa Rica is home to a diverse range of villas. If you're seeking for a larger villa, you'll have no trouble finding one in Costa Rica.
costa rica vacation villas, costa rica villa for rent

A Plus Home Healthcare Solutions said...

If you are unable to care for your elderly loved ones and require in-home care, please contact us. We provide home care services at a reasonable rate.
home healthcare agency me, home healthcare agency me

رويال بيطري said...

يقوم العديد من أصحاب الحيوانات الأليفة بإطعام حيواناتهم وجبات منزلية الصنع. يطعمون حيواناتهم الأليفة نفس الطعام الذي يأكلونه. إنه محل تقدير كبير. ومع ذلك ، هل أدركت أن الأطعمة المصنوعة في المنزل قد لا توفر جميع العناصر الغذائية والفيتامينات الحيوية لحيوانك الأليف؟ نعم ، لقد قرأت ذلك بشكل صحيح.
مرهم عثة الاذن للقطط, تطعيم قطط, بيوتي هورس

parking pole light said...

If your system is older you may want to consider updating or retrofitting with newer energy efficient lighting. If the lights aren't shinning as brightly, if they are flickering or if they burn out quickly they may need some attention.

Sign removal, Pole light led replacement chicago

Connectwise said...

In our organization, Connectwise Control is used to provide remote support for internal and general customers when needed. It integrates powerful tools and functions to remotely connect devices, share screens, transfer files, communicate with users through built-in chat, etc. on the same platform. It works perfectly, is easy to install, and does not consume a lot of equipment resources.

james parker said...

Quickbooks tool hub is a very helpful application to resolve all the issues in the quickbook. quickbooks tool hub

QuickBooks Enterprise for Mac said...

Quickbooks Enterprise for Mac is a package designed specifically for Mac users.The main features of QB Mac is automated alerts in iCalender, time-pitched messages in the menu bar, automatic touch sync etc.
Begin by installing this software you can go QuickBooks Enterprise for Mac this website.

Joe Smith said...

vitamins & minerals are too much important for the body.
quickbooks main concern is that while user using its software then they feel free about their safety of the data and square focuses on customization of their dashboard according to its customer quickbooks vs square

office.com/setup said...

office.com/setup: Go to office.com/setup, office setup webpage. Sign In with your Microsoft Account or Create a New one. Enter your Office Product key/Code. On Account Page, click Install Office. Click Install Office button again. Review your options, Click Install to Download setup. Download file and Run Office Installation. Accept Prompts to Begin Installation. Wait for the Installation to Finish. Installation Complete, Open Apps.Visit Us:

lucifer1413 said...

Nowadays, streaming offerings are trending on an extensive scale and lots of customers have switched from the usage of cable connections to online video streaming provider providers. One such famed call on this area is Disney Plus which now no longer handiest helps you to move online video content material however additionally lets you store them for offline watching. To start making high-quality use of this provider, one handiest wishes to visit disneyplus.com login/start and whole a quick process. However, many humans aren't privy to the usage of generation at its high quality and as a result, they may want a little assist in the usage of Disney Plus.
Disneyplus.com/begin |
Hotmail sign in |
Facebook login |
Omegle |
Hbomax.com/tvsignin |

Quickbooks online error 103 said...

quickbooks online error 103 is also known as the banking error which is a fatal error.

Anonymous said...

cruiser skateboard
Shop online the best quality Carver, cruiser and recycled skateboards at the lowest price from Gold Coast Longboards. Order today and get ✅ fast Delivery

bella smith said...

Get your Cash app issues resolved with the cash app customer service number

If you have an issue in your Cash app account and you are not able to make your online transactions with the app then, you need to click on the link which is mentioned. And after clicking on the link, you will be taken to the page of the Cash App Customer Service Number. Users can easily get rid of their Cash app technical error after getting assistance from Cash app customer support.

bella smith said...

Want to know how to add money to cash app card?
Do you want to know the procedure to Add Money To A Cash App Card if yes then you will know here how to add money to a cash app card? To know about the procedure to add money to a cash app card you just have to click on this given link here.

keikismith said...

How Do I Report A Cash Get instant help on solving Cash App Refund glitches

Want to troubleshoot the technical woes of Cash App Refund? If yes then you need to seek assistance with the cash app technical team by calling on the helpline number. Techies will assist you around the clock to ensure a proper solution. Get rectification solutions and support to fix the complicated problems.
https://www.contact-mail-support.com/blog/get-a-refund-on-cash-app/

keikismith said...

App Account If Looking For A Permanent Solution?

Are you seeking How Do I Report A Cash App Account about the problems you have been facing while working on your cash App account? All you have to do is to navigate through the official help and support section where you can have the better understanding of the way to tackle it down.
https://www.contact-mail-support.com/blog/can-you-report-a-cash-app-account/