Anti-Inflammatory Diet

All health care starts with diet. My recommendations for a healthy diet are here:
Anti-Inflammatory Diet and Lifestyle.
There are over 190 articles on diet, inflammation and disease on this blog
(find topics using search [upper left] or index [lower right]), and
more articles by Prof. Ayers on Suite101 .

Wednesday, June 24, 2015

Making Monsters, Renegade C. butyricum and E. coli

It is common knowledge that our gut is teeming with good bacteria that we feed with prebiotic fiber to keep us healthy.  But a sick gut, caused by antibiotics or fiber deficient processed food, can make us susceptible to infection with pathogens, such as the notorious, toxin-producing strains of E. coli that cause food poisoning or Clostridium difficile, a.k.a. C. diff. of hospital infections.  What prompted me to write this post, was reading that premature babies in neonatal intensive care units are dying from gut infections caused by a pathogenic strain of C. butyricum, known as a probiotic that provides protection from C. diff.

New Toxin-Producing, Antibiotic Superbugs are Manmade
Closer examination of the report revealed that the new strain of C. butyricum is a toxin producer.  This made a lot of sense to me.  When I started working with E. coli in the early 70’s, it was known as the safe ubiquitous lab bacterium that everyone cultivated in their colons.  Similarly, C. butyricum is present in commercial probiotics and is a hero for producing butyric acid from resistant starch, promoting immune system development and reducing inflammation.  How did these beneficial gut bacteria become converted into pathogens?

Antibiotic and Drug Use in Hospitals and Farms Select for Antibiotic Resistance
C. butyricum and E. coli have been converted into toxin-producing, antibiotic resistant pathogens by common procedures of meat production and hospital treatments.  These bacteria do not normally produce toxins nor are they resistant to antibiotics.  They have been systematically selected for those pathogenic properties.

Common Practices in Neonatal Intensive Care Units Lead to NEC
Chronic inflammation is one of the common contributing factors to premature births, because labor is stimulated by a spike of inflammation, normally occurring at 40 weeks of gestation.  Chronic inflammation from autoimmune disease, infection, or obesity, can cause labor to be early and a newborn to be unprepared for life without some special care.  Unfortunately, there is not uniform enlightenment about the development of newborn gut flora, and immature newborns are exposed to antibiotics and formula, which prevent normal gut flora development.  C. butyricum is not present in low birth weight babies exclusively fed breast milk, but the combination of antibiotics and formula select for colonization by antibiotic resistant hospital strains of C. butyricum.  This sets the stage for necrotizing enterocolitis, NEC, which is as nasty and lethal as the name suggests.

Antibiotics Used to Make Fat Cattle Select for Toxin Production
The development of toxin producing E. coli in cattle suggests how pathogenic C. butyricum was produced in the hospital environment.  E. coli was a healthy component of the digestive system of cattle, until the gut flora community was reengineered by antibiotics, so that short chain fatty acids that were normally converted into more gut bacteria and more steer manure, were instead absorbed by the gut to produce a fatter steak.  Unfortunately, this newly designed gut flora community left no place for E. coli.  Some of the E. coli spontaneously mutated to antibiotic resistance and/or picked up multi-drug resistant plasmids from other bacteria, but that still didn’t provide a niche in the new community.  Picking up a toxin-producing gene solved that problem, because the toxin releases needed nutrients from host cells.  Thus, antibiotic use in cattle directly selected for the evolution of toxin-producing, antibiotic resistant E. coli.

Antibiotics and Formula Use Lead to NEC Bacteria
Toxin-producing C. butyricum would be expected to develop in the hospital environment, because high antibiotic use will select for multiple drug resistant C. butyricum, and the disrupted gut flora produced in the presence of antibiotics will also favor toxin producing strains.  Thus, the hospital environment selects for toxin-producing, multiple drug resistant C. butyricum.  The gut flora of newborns in a neonatal intensive care unit are acquired from the staff and relatives that handle the babies.  Since the babies are routinely treated with antibiotics and drugs, multiple drug resistant bacteria, including C. butyricum, are common in fecal samples of neonates and persist for at least two years. 
Breastfeeding or Donor Bank Milk Avoids NEC Caused by Formula
Exclusive use of breastmilk from mothers, donor banks or breastmilk products, eliminates NEC.   Some hospitals respond to the scientific evidence and use only breastmilk for newborns.  Other hospitals simply stick to old practices until law suits force them to change.  They continue to use formula and cow’s milk products,  even though breastmilk is available, and as a consequence NEC is still a problem. Prejudice against breastmilk persists and there is intense promotion of commercial alternatives that contribute to NEC.  None of the alternatives containing probiotics and prebiotics have been found to be adequate.   Hospitals are slow to change, because patients are uninformed and low birthweight babies continue to die.


Anonymous said...

Hi Dr Ayer,

I would just like to say Thanks for taking the time to educate us on good health. I have read a lot of your posts and find it fascinating that since the science is out there and that most of it is just common sense like "don't kill for the sake of it": I am eluding of course to the use of Antibiotics, handing them out like sweets to who ever is willing/and not willing to take them, that the public in general is so far from understating the basic principle: that life is persistent and for most of the time you can't eradicate it but instead should learn to live with it.
Your posts drove me to read other materials/ books like the "An epidemic of absence" or "the brain maker" who all treat the same subjects as yours.

Simplify said...

Hi Dr. Ayer,

I've been following your writings for some time now, and I have used your insights to effect real health changes! I read this latest post with avid interest since one of the things that helped me a lot (after multiple lengthy rounds of antibiotics around surgeries that required long-lasting indwelling drains) was a commercial product, AOR ProBiotic3, which as you know contains C. butyricum. Guess where I got the idea to try that? :D

Your other writings have also led to significant changes in my thinking about several things. One of my favorite quotes of ALL TIME is yours about the flushing toilet as an aerosolizing fountain of good health. I repeat this whenever I can find an audience with minds even potentially open enough to understand. Another important idea that I have adopted is the notion that supplements are not to be taken chronically. As a pharmacologist, I have even extended this notion to drugs and medicines (with appropriate limits). I am quite positive that going OFF a drug should be given much more attention than modern Western medicine yet knows.

Thank you sincerely for your efforts to inform and enlighten. As an academic scientist, autodidact, and avid consumer of knowledge, I consider myself an information connoisseur, and your blog is among my favorite information sources (and this includes PubMed). I'm not one to write online fan mail, but here's a well-warranted exception.

Thank you!
Kimberly P. Lindsey, Ph.D.

Anonymous said...

Hi Dr Ayers,

I am requesting that you do a post specific to IgG Food Sensitivity Testing explaining the the development of the identified reactions in the blood and how fixing the tummy biology short circuits this process - with your great charts etc.

If I am interpreting what you have said in previous posts I think you are saying that the offending proteins won't get into the blood if they are properly processed during digestion in a healthy digestive tract. Is that correct?

I would much appreciate clarity on this issue. Maybe I am missing something obvious.

Cheers, adrian

Anonymous said...

Me Again, Or are you saying it won't matter if the proteins get through because the T-Regs will be dampening immune response or both. My understanding is if someone has leaky gut the undigested protein gets through which causes the issue So heal the gut no offending proteins. Is it that simple or a combination of proper digestion and T-Reg activity??

Dr. Art Ayers said...

The major point with testing for IgG food sensitivity, is that they all go away as the gut flora is repaired. The net result is that food sensitivities/allergies are all the result of food intolerances. In all cases, the cure is to fix the flora. IMHO, all of the testing for food sensitivities/allergies is a scam and is meaningless. Whether or not dietary proteins can be found in the blood is irrelevant. The whole point is that the immune system, e.g. Tregs, develops in the gut in response to gut bacteria. If those bacteria are damaged, then the part of the immune system responsible for tolerance does not work and the result is autoimmune disease and allergies. Simple food intolerances result from missing bacteria that digest food-specific molecules.

Gut flora cannot be fixed by just changing diet. New bacteria are needed and must be introduced by mouth. Thus, avoiding problem foods does not fix gut flora, but just stops symptoms. Typical probiotics provide a bandaid fix, but don't repair gut flora. Fermented foods are a good temporary fix and can be useful if eaten daily, but they also do not provide the colon bacteria needed for healthy gut flora. Read my other articles on repairing gut flora.

i think that leaky gut is a separate issue from most food sensitivities, and dietary proteins leaking into the serum is not an issue. Antibodies are not typically involved and there is a lot of sloppiness in the testing. Celiac and anaphylactic responses are isolated cases.

Thanks for the questions.

Dr. Art Ayers said...

I greatly appreciate you taking the time to respond is such generous terms. I enjoy helping and feed back like yours makes it all worthwhile. As a pharmacologist, I encourage you to explore the antibiotic activity of all drugs as the source of multi drug resistance superbugs. I think that drugs in general are the problem and not just labelled antibiotics. We need to reduce drug use in general by 99%.

I also find it provocative that the physiological activity of most drugs can be replicated by antibiotics.

Thanks for your comments and I look forward to hearing from you again.

Anonymous said...

should we not take AOR-3 probiotic then?
Thanks Dr. A!

Kay Dee said...

"dietary proteins leaking into the serum is not an issue. Antibodies are not typically involved and there is a lot of sloppiness in the testing. Celiac and anaphylactic responses are isolated cases."

Dr. Ayers, can you deeply focus on this point?

Thank you, K. Dee

Anonymous said...

Dr. Ayers, i hope you can take the time to answer my question.

I've had gut dysbiosis for many years. Through the steps you mention here on the blog (diet, prebiotics, dirty veggies, FMT, etc.) I've slowly managed to rebuild my gut flora, and I now feel that many of my "food intolerances" have largely gone away.

However, my gut health is still not where I want it to be. The weird thing is that my current gut problems seem to be largely unrelated to what I eat. I'll be almost completely fine for a couple of days, and then suddenly my gut will act up, even though my diet hasn't changed. I rarely get constipation or diarrhea, but rather "pain", flatulence, and a feeling that something is "living inside me". Years of dysbiosis and inflammation has also given me chronic fatigue, low libido, and other health problems.

It feels like I've done "everything" to repair my flora, including FMT. And I'm starting to wonder whether my problems may also have other root causes beside traditional dysbiosis.

One strange thing I've noticed is that I generally feel a lot better when I leave my home for extended periods of time. Could something (e.g. The microbial environment) in my home be making me sick?

Or could parasites be to blame?

Thank you so much for sharing your knowledge and all the work you put into this blog.

Dr. Art Ayers said...

K. Dee,
Most medical people treating food sensitivities try to find which foods are causing the problems by systematically removing foods or shifting to a simplified, bland diet and carefully adding back. My point is that the food is not the problem, but rather missing bacteria to either digest plant polysaccharides (in food intolerances) or to stimulate immune tolerance/Tregs (in autoimmunity or allergies) is the problem. Thus, having the food there or not will not address the cause or cure. Introducing missing bacteria is the cure for intolerances and actual allergies.

Very few food sensitivities are caused by immune interactions with food proteins. Food sensitivities seldom involve the immune system. Exceptions are celiac, mediated by the toxic gluten proteins in grains, and extreme extensions of sensitivities that involve the immune system, such as anaphylaxis. Even the exceptions can be partially repaired by fixing gut flora.

Study of food allergies, confirmed by IgG, show that they still respond to correction of gut bacteria and are just exaggerated food intolerances. Thus, skin tests, etc. for immune response to foods is usually a waste of time and mostly false positives, and the cure is still going to be to fix the gut flora. Most of the elaborate treatments do nothing, but just involve waiting for the gut flora to change. If the problem is in immune tolerance, the cure is still to fix the gut flora.

I don't think that leaky gut is central to food sensitivities, because sensitivities can occur with an intact gut, simply because intestinal monitoring cells, e.g. dendritic cells, extend through the epithelial layer and sample food antigens. So, my view is not that the epithelial layer is different in food sensitivities, but rather that the normal sampling of antigens leads to a different result in sensitivities. By this I mean that instead of producing immune tolerance, damaged gut flora eliminates the tolerance system and the result is an aggressive immune response including antibody production. Leaky gut would aggravate the problem by increasing inflammation in response to LPS, but just a deficiency in the tolerance system would produce IgGs and IgEs.

Most food intolerances are not medical issues and medical treatment is ineffectual. Lactose intolerance, for example, is easily treated with persistent small, sub symptomatic doses of dairy probiotics in yogurt. Most people try to avoid symptoms and listen to the lactose-free industry that preaches that lactose intolerance is just a genetic issue. Not.

I hope that this is the explanation you were seeking.

Dr. Art Ayers said...

It should be obvious that I am not an MD and can't diagnose. As you note, I just make life style suggestions and try to explain things. Your approach seems reasonable in outline and leads to a healthy gut flora in most cases. I hope that your FMT was not from a relative or someone likely to share your flora. It is hard to evaluate your situation from a distance and your chronic issues could point to Lyme disease or other diseases.

Anonymous said...

So if for example an IgG Food Sensitivity Blood Test came back saying that one had a Very Strong Positive reaction to Egg White and a Positive Reaction to Egg Yolk then where does this fit? I presume its the protein that is causing the reaction?? Could you clarify where does this fit into your explanation?
Appreciate your clarity.

Anonymous said...

Hi Adrian here again,

In You talk about
Group A Bacteria Provide Aggressive Immunity
There are several dozen species of bacteria in healthy gut flora, including the filamentous bacteria, that trigger the development of the aggressive part of your immune system that attacks pathogens, and kills cells of your body that are infected with viruses or are cancerous. Most antibiotics don’t permanently damage this group of bacteria, so after a course of antibiotics you can usually still stop infections. Excessive suppression of aggressive immunity contributes to cancer.

In your other posts you talk about getting the T-regs or immune suppressive side going a lot but not about getting the aggressive immunity side going. Could you provide more clarity on how to do this? or is it the same as - get more diversity into your gut in the form of raw dirty vegies, fermented vegies, and FMT?? Some one close to me died of cancer and had lots of digestive problems for many years, so I am interested.
Cheers, Adrian

Anonymous said...

You also say in the same article, "Partial digestion due to just a few missing bacterial species produces the symptoms of food intolerances". What is the process by which this occurs please?

kay Dee said...

Dr Ayers,
thank you very much for the accurate explanation.
On the same topic, I would describe my experience and self observation:
several years ago I was in a situation of mid-severity-psoriasis, gastrointestinal issues, solar skin eritema at very low exposure, severe seasonal pollen allergy.
i started with Zone Diet + EPA/DHA and It was better.
Then, integrated on the way whit your typical guidelines [more saturated fats, grass-dirt exposure (via pet and gardening), sun exposure (finally eritema free), more solubile fiber /resistant starch, less fruits, less polyphenols] and things went even better, much better.
Today just one issue remains, even if in a lower level: seasonal pollen allergy (or pollen intolerance?).
You wrote something about it in post comments and I know your first suggestion is C. Butyricum + resistant starch, but I would appreciate more details on how pollen allergy differs (or how it works the same) from food sensitivity.
Thank you very much for sharing your science and your time.

kay Dee

Greg said...

Kay Deb,

Anecdotally, many people report improvement in seasonal allergies by supplementing local and preferably raw honey on a daily basis. I think the idea is that the small amounts of pollen proteins are encountered by the immune system in the gut on a regular basis, enabling the body to reach a state of tolerance.


matrixik said...


I follow your blog from some time and really like what you write. Keep the good work.
I can see that your ideas are really similar with Dave Asprey from

The only one significant difference is that he is not fond of fermented foods because of histamine formation and nitrosamine formation in the gut (and he try to avoid as much toxins as possible).
Some more here:

Can you comment on this?

You can check what he suggest to eat here:
Bulletproof Diet Roadmap (poster)
Bulletproof Shopping Guide:

And in his book

I really like this poster where it's fast and easy to check what I should eat and what to avoid. And I can pin it to my fridge :)

Do you think his food recommendations (maybe with some changes) can be used for successful anti-inflammatory diet?

Best regards,
Dobrosław Żybort

Dr. Art Ayers said...

I don't think that honey would hurt, but I don't think that it will provide much benefit for allergies, unless you have already repaired your gut flora and then your tolerance would be directed by pollen to suppress aggressive responses to those antigens.

Dr. Art Ayers said...

kay Dee,
I think that the difference between food allergies/intolerances and pollen allergies, is that few sensitivities to food involve IgEs, whereas pollen allergies involve IgEs bound to peripheral dendritic cells. I suspect that the dendritic cells are long lived, so after the allergy is fixed via reinstatement of tolerance, it still takes several seasons for the dendritic cells/IgEs to die off.

Thanks for the questions.

Dr. Art Ayers said...

about the source of the symptoms in food intolerances.

Since intolerances don't involve Ig's, but still happen quickly, it is a bit perplexing. The rapid development suggests histamine release, but that typically involves IgEs, so I would say that some more general disruption ending in histamine release is occurring. There also seems to be a sensitization of the histamine system/receptors/inactivating enzymes that also occurs and that would explain why some people respond aggressively to normal histamine levels in foods. I think that pursuing the immunology directly is a waste of time, since it makes the most sense to just fix the root cause of a damaged gut flora/tolerance system.

Dr. Art Ayers said...

I enjoy Dave Asprey and some people appreciate a lot of detail in dietary information. I think that most of the detail is unimportant, unless one has a very damaged system. I mostly focus on how a healthy system works, and that is very simple. All it takes is dietary fat and protein (typically meat/fish/eggs), prebiotic polysaccharides (vegetables), gut flora adapted to the prebiotics, exercise and sleep. Few other foods are a real problem. I don't sweat histamine, since the gut produces lots of enzymes to digest it. In most cases, if there is a problem it is due to damaged gut flora, so the answer is the same -- fix the flora.

Thanks for the comments.

Dr. Art Ayers said...

I puzzle about cancer and it certainly involves immune suppression. So, I think that normalization of gut flora is part of the answer, and that works for autoimmune diseases. That would suggest that fecal transplants should fix cancer, but that doesn't seem to be the case, so just increasing aggressive immunity in general does not seem to be the answer.

I think that cancers may go through a phase in which a functioning immune attack would wipe the tumor out, but subsequently immune attack may just select for resistance in the same way as chemo therapeutics. So, it is best to prevent cancer with a fully functional immune system. That would seem to be particularly important with age that tends to lead to increasing inflammation. Mismanaged inflammation is the source of most disease.

Thanks for the questions and comments.

Anonymous said...

Just out of curiosity if fermented foods and supplements like Probitics 3 aren't the cure....what is the true "fix"?

RedGreen said...

The true cure procedure could be following:

1.Kill patient´s all microbiota with antibiotics

2.Put him into quarantee and give immunosuppressants

3.Operate Fecal transplant from donor(s) whose microbiota is very similar to patient´s original healthy one

The immunosuppressants allow the immune system time to get used to the transplanted healthy microbiota( which hopefully would be adequate enough)

Any thoughts Dr.Ayers?

Old Road Primitives said...

Dr Ayers, Is there a way to know which bacteria we are lacking and need to add back? Also, when doing RS and feeding the good bacteria, how do we keep from feeding the bad bacteria? Will the growth of good bacteria crowd out the bad? Also, could you please explain DNASE1 in a "nut shell"? Thanks so much! Kim

Dr. Art Ayers said...

I have written more than 200 articles on this blog and there are several dozen on repairing gut flora.

One of the first links on this post is to Healthy Gut Microbiota and that articles points to several others on repair of gut flora.

In general, there is no need to kill off existing gut bacteria and there is certainly no need to give immunosuppressants that damage the immune system. The main function of the healthy gut bacteria is to control the healthy development of the immune system. Also, stop thinking about good and bad bacteria.

So no antibiotics or immunosuppressants. They are definitely part of the problem. Also no quarantine.

Most bacteria present in a healthy gut got there from other people, or animals or dirty vegetables. So, in general isolation from other people is bad for you. Hygiene is usually bad, e.g. antibacterial soap. A dirt floor is healthier than a bleached floor. Sewage systems and clean water are obviously good and I think that they have been more important than vaccines, but we still need to pick up heathy bacteria from other healthy people through physical contact.

Fecal transplants are safe and effective for many chronic diseases. Obviously the donor has to be healthy and free from pathogens, but if the recipient has a chronic disease, then relatives and close friends probably also have damaged gut flora and would be poor donors. It seems to me that it would be better to start fresh from an unrelated donor and the donor and recipient need to match diets, so that the donor bacteria are adapted to the recipients diet.

Immunosuppressants are toxins that should only be used for medical emergencies, since they wipe out the immune system and a whole lot more.

I hope that this was a bad joke, but not meant to make people sick.

Dr. Art Ayers said...

Neutrophils arrive at sites of inflammation and can release DNA, histones, etc. (NETs) that insnare pathogens. The mess is cleaned up by phagocytic cells. The liver will also secrete DNAseI to degrade the DNA and help with the clean up. DNAseI secretion is also stimulated by probiotic bacteria. Clean up of the NET mess also results in antigen presentation to the immune system. Thus, pathogen or self antigens that bind to DNA or have triplets of basic amino acids that stimulate the presentation process are candidates to become allergens or autoantigens, which mediate allergies or autoimmune diseases.

I hope this is helpful.

Dr. Art Ayers said...

Good and bad bacteria,
There is no easy way to look at your gut bacteria, decide what's good and bad, kill the bad and add back the good.

Fortunately most people don't have to work that hard to fix their problems.

Most of the probiotics available are from commercial dairy sources, e.g. probiotic capsules, yogurt. Fermented vegetables have many of the same bacteria. These "dairy probiotics" are what provide babies with functional immune systems. Thus, dairy probiotics are good for temporary repair of the immune system. Fermented vegetables are a good addition on a regular basis for immune system health, but a healthy, adult gut flora requires more than dairy probiotics.

Dairy probiotics are a quick fix, but do not repair gut flora.

Read my articles on repairing gut flora. You need to eat a wide diversity of bacteria and let your system select the useful species. I can't just tell people what to eat to repair gut flora to cure them of diseases, because I am not a medical doctor. Many people just use some common sense and increase the bacteria that they are exposed to and find themselves cured of a variety of diseases that medicine can't readily handle, e.g. allergies and autoimmune diseases.

Good luck and thanks for the questions.

Genesis Moreno said...

i used this method and now i am so happy with my weight.
3 Weeks Diet

Anonymous said...

Dr. Ayers - happy to see you blogging again, thanks a lot for your work. Speaking of probiotics - it's is not possible to buy soil-based probiotics in my country. So I've taken the most direct route: taking a gram or so of pure soil once or twice a week for the last couple months. You told once that soil contains most of the desired microbes, and a compost pile certainly has them all. I also noted that you did not advice consuming soil by itself because of possible parasites and pathogens. But I am pretty sure that soil from my summer house in the mountains is free from contamination and should be free from parasites (there are no animals or humans on the land plot). Anyways, I am taking the soil sometimes and have not noticed any ill effects so far.

My question is whether, in your view, the microbes from soil, if the soil is orally consumed, can get through to the large intestine? Or are they killed while passing through the small intestine?

Anonymous said...

Dr what is your opinion on antibiotics that are used to treat tuberculosis....i mean they are absolutely necessary while treating tb.... Wouldn't they also affect the gut micro biome in a bad way like other antibiotics do???

Jon Dickson said...

Hi Art

Thanks for providing such an detailed and informative blog. I stumbled across it while researching heparan sulphate, although there's so many interesting entries, I have been completely distracted!

I was hoping you might be able to help me with understanding the role of HS in new bone formation.

I have a genetic disorder called hereditary multiple exestoses (HME) which causes bony lumps to grow out from bones when growing through childhood. There's no cure or treatment currently, other than the surgical removal of the lumps if they become too painful or inhibiting. Sadly I've passed it on to my 2 small boys - it's very hard for me watching the lumps start to appear on their perfect little bodies, so I have been trying to find out if there's anything I can do about it, or at least get the best understanding I can.

The mutation is on one of the EXT1, EXT2, or EXT3 genes, which as I understand it, are involved in the synthesis of HS. It sounds like HS helps provides a neat 'scaffold' for new bone cells to grow on, and without it the scaffold becomes irregular and the bone grows out in the wrong direction.

Since HS has so many important jobs all around the body, I don't understand why with HME, only the bones are affected. Are the other parts of the body making their HS successfully somehow?

I suppose my main question is, if the problem is down to the body not making HS itself, isn't there some other way of providing it? Would a dietary supplement, similar to glucosamine tablets, work; or perhaps focusing on (or avoiding) particular foods, like meat and bone broth? Would dietary HS ever make it to the growing bit of the bones?

I suspect it's not as simple as that, but any advice and info you could give would be very gratefully received.

Thanks very much

Dr. Art Ayers said...

HME, as you indicated, is much more complex than most of the diseases that I discuss on this site, because it involves the synthesis of heparan sulfate proteoglycans, which in turn are central to development of most tissues, including the brain, hormone signaling and tumor formation. EXT1 is a tumor suppressor, as well as an enzyme localized in the endoplasmic reticulum for the synthesis of heparan sulfate. I have many articles that stress the importance of proteins binding to heparan sulfate, aka heparin binding domains.

That said, I am very interested in diseases related to heparan sulfate synthesis and briefly studied the involvement of inflammation, via NFkB, in blocking HS synthesis and stimulating heparanase to degrade HS. Heparanase is integral to tumor metastasis, since connective tissue/basement membranes is dependent on HS.

So, I am interested in your case, but it is way over my head in complexity, especially since treatment of hereditary diseases is very problematical, because they are rare. Anyway, please contact me by following me on twitter and I will be in touch.

jon dickson said...

Thanks for the reply Art. I am now following you on twitter.

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