Anti-Inflammatory Diet

All health care starts with diet. My recommendations for a healthy diet are here:
Anti-Inflammatory Diet and Lifestyle.
There are over 190 articles on diet, inflammation and disease on this blog
(find topics using search [upper left] or index [lower right]), and
more articles by Prof. Ayers on Suite101 .

Wednesday, June 24, 2009

The Cause of Allegies and Autoimmune Diseases

Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH): Internalized Antigen

Scanning the literature for a common protein that can be used as an experimental antigen, it becomes quickly obvious that a favorite is KLH. This would seem to be an odd choice -- why a keyhole limpet protein? But that is the wrong question.

Why is KLH such a good antigen, i.e. why is it readily presented to the host immune system? If you have been reading my posts, you might be thinking about triplets of basic amino acids and that is the answer.

As soon as I remembered the prominent use of KLH as an antigen, I checked the NCBI protein database and immediately found an unusual KKK (triple lysine) near the amino terminus of hemocyanin II ( it comes in two pieces). This triplet explains why KLH is such a good experimental antigen, because it is internalized into antigen presenting cells by its strong heparin-binding domain. Other components, adjuvants, are typically added to the KLH for injection to make sure that a strong local inflammation occurs.

Autoantigens Have Strong Heparin-Binding Triplet

I also learned that Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease mediated by the autoantigen thyroid peroxidase. A quick search reveals that thyroid peroxidase is an autoantigen, because it also has a triplet of basic amino acids that can enhance presentation under inflammatory conditions. Grave’s disease of hyperthyroidism is an autoimmune disease in which the thyroid receptor (with a basic triplet) is an autoantigen. The same kind of triplet of basic amino acids was found when I searched today for fire ant antigens and mosquito antigens.

I have also looked for the triplets in protein databases. The triplets are rare in cytoplasmic and extracellular proteins. The proteins that have triplets are usually identified as autoantigens in some disease. The triplets are common in nuclear proteins, since heparin-binding and nucleic acid-binding share the same basic amino acid domains. The nuclear internalization signal also results in rapid cellular internalization, e.g. HIV-TAT, heparanase, IGF-binding proteins. Nuclear proteins are common autoantigens in lupus.

Inflammation Plus Heparin-Binding Internalization: Allergy, Autoimmunity

Chronic inflammation can produce antibodies against proteins (foreign or self) with strong heparin-binding domains (triplets or sometimes neighboring pairs of basic amino acids, lysine or arginine). The generalization explains why particular proteins in pollens, foods, insects, pets, mites, asthma, MS, lupus, celiac, etc. produce antibody responses.


kinh said...
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buy klonopin said...

Good advice! Must make a note of it.

Aaron said...

I have a friend that was recently diagnosed with Graves disease. I'm curious if you have any recommendations above and beyond your anti-inflammation diet? Also is there anything in the blood work that she should be paying more attention to? She is in her early thirties and has never had any signs or symptoms of thyroid disorder in the past. She told me her family does have a history but its hypothyroid and not hyper they have always dealt with. Any advice you can offer would be much appreciated it. Thank you for your time.

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