Anti-Inflammatory Diet

All health care starts with diet. My recommendations for a healthy diet are here:
Anti-Inflammatory Diet and Lifestyle.
There are over 190 articles on diet, inflammation and disease on this blog
(find topics using search [upper left] or index [lower right]), and
more articles by Prof. Ayers on Suite101 .

Thursday, September 11, 2014

Peanut Allergy Cause and Cure

Summary:  The cure for peanut allergy should follow naturally from knowledge of the cause.  Since most allergies and autoimmune diseases result from the combination of 1) inflammation, 2) breakdown of immunological tolerance and 3) presentation of a primary immunogen, it follows that some types of peanut allergy are based on a continued problem with immune tolerance and fixing that defect should eliminate an allergic response to peanuts.  The current cure to resurrect immune tolerance is by enhancing regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the gut using resistant starch to improve the growth of Clostridia in the gut.

Peanut allergies are dangerous and this post does not advocate any medical treatments, but rather attempts to explain the cause and cures of allergies.

Just Treat the Immunological Tolerance Problem Instead of Mast Cells
Most people in fear of anaphylaxis from peanut dust, just try desperately to avoid peanuts in any guise.  That avoids the problem, but why not cure the allergy?  Recent research shows that peanut allergens can be prevented from establishing an allergic response in mice by addition of Clostridium species of bacteria in the gut flora.  It was shown that the Clostridia increased Tregs (regulatory T cells responsible for immune tolerance) in the lining of the intestines via interleukin 22 production.  So the cure to some peanut allergies may be increasing Tregs and fixing tolerance.

I Said It All Before
It is not a large step to combine my previous posts covering potato resistant starch for treatment of deficiencies of immunological tolerance with my explanation of the cause of allergies and autoimmunity to provide a simple explanation of the cause and cure for some peanut allergies.

Peanut Allergen is a Typical Bean Storage Protein Except for the Basic Triplet
It is not difficult to find out why peanuts are allergenic.  I just went to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) web site and queried the protein sequence databases for “peanut allergen.”  Here is the complete amino acid sequence (each of the 20 amino acids of the protein is assigned a letter) of the major peanut [Arachis hypogaea] allergen:

MMVKLSILVALLGALLVVASATRWDPDRGSRGSRWDAPSRGDDQCQRQLQRANLRPCEEHMRRRVEQEQEQEQDEYPYSRRGSRGRQPGESDENQEQRCCNELNRFQNNQRCMCQALQQILQNQSFWVPAGQEPVASDGEGAQELAPELRVQVTKPLRPL

The triplet of basic amino acids (R=arginine, K=lysine), RRR in this case, which is found in all allergens and autoantigens, is highlighted in red.  If you eat peanuts with an inflamed gut and you have wiped out your Clostridia and associated Tegs with antibiotics, you have a good chance of developing autoimmunity, as well as a peanut allergy.  The cause of allergies is that simple and the cure is equally simple.

Shellfish Allergy Shows the Relationship between Allergy and Autoimmunity
I ran across a list of other food allergens when I was checking up on peanuts.  Shellfish was listed as another of the big allergies.  I looked up “shellfish allergen” and ran into thousands of entries.  The first couple of dozen proteins lacked the characteristic basic triplet, so I had to step back and try to guess the most typical shellfish for first exposure, i.e. the primary immunogen.  All of the other shellfish allergens were various versions of the muscle protein, tropomyosin, so I looked up “shrimp allergen.”

MDAIKKKMQAMKLEKDNAMDRADTLEQQNKEANNRAEKSEEEVHNLQKRMQQLENDLDQVQESLLKANIQLVEKDKALSNAEGEVAALNRRIQLLEEDLERSEERLNTATTKLAEASQAADESERMRKVLENRSLSDEERMDALENQLKEARFLAEEADRKYDEVARKLAMVEADLERAEERAETGESKIVELEEELRVVGNNLKSLEVSEEKANQREEAYKEQIKTLTNKLKAAEARAEFAERSVQKLQKEVDRLEDELVNEKEKYKSITDELDQTFSELSGY

Note the predicted basic triplet in red.  Since I was on a roll, I also checked out related tropomyosin sequences in humans:

MDAIKKKMQMLKLDKENALDRAEQAEADKKAAEDRSKQLEDELVSLQKKLKGTEDELDKYSEALKDAQEKLELAEKKATDAEADVASLNRRIQLVEEELDRAQERLATALQKLEEAEKAADESERGMKVIESRAQKDEEKMEIQEIQLKEAKHIAEDADRKYEEVARKLVIIESDLERAEERAELSEGKCAELEEELKTVTNNLKSLEAQAEKYSQKEDRYEEEIKVLSDKLKEAETRAEFAERSVTKLEKSIDDLEDELYAQKLKYKAISEELDHALNDMTSM

Once again the basic triplet indicated that there was a related human tropomyosin that could interact with antibodies to the shellfish allergen or could be an autoantigen participating in autoimmune diseases.  So I checked PubMed for “tropomyosin autoantigen” and quickly found that antibodies to tropomyosin are important in ulcerative colitis (UC).  Thus, shellfish allergy may be an indication of an underlying predisposition to UC.  And, the traditional cure for allergy by injection with small amounts of the allergen to convert from IgE to IgG, would convert a shellfish allergy into UC.

Avoiding Allergens Makes No More Sense Than Trying to Avoid Autoantigens
To fix allergies, it is necessary to eliminate the cause and block perpetuation of the condition.  The cause is based on 1)inflammation, 2) broken immune tolerance and 3) primary immunogen.  Peanuts are the primary immunogen, but that is unimportant if the causing conditions are eliminated and tolerance is reestablished.  Clearly, if immunological tolerance is reestablished, then it's just a matter of time before peanuts are no longer a problem, because increasing Tregs will silence the dramatic immunological response to peanuts.  Tolerance is based on Tregs and Tregs develop in the intestines in response to Clostridia feeding on soluble fiber/resistant starch.

Curing Peanut Allergies is Based on Repairing Gut Flora
There are a couple of hundred different species in the pounds of bacteria in the healthy human gut.  Most of those bacteria require soluble fiber that is systematically removed during food processing.  For most people, the cure for peanut allergies will be resistant starch/Clostridium therapy, followed by further repair with fermented foods that provide the typical lactic acid bacteria and soluble fiber along with companion bacteria that can recolonize the gut.  The cure for many allergies and autoimmune diseases is just to eat a couple of tablespoons of resistant starch each day and if needed, supplement with probiotics containing Clostridium butyricum.  If there is severe dysbiosis, as indicated by constipation, then fixing the gut flora is a little more difficult, but for most people cures are much cheaper and effective than just treating symptoms.

A guide for the use of resistant starch is provided by Richard Nikoley, et al. at Free the Animal.

55 comments:

Tigress35 said...

This is intriguing, but as someone with a pretty bad peanut allergy, how would you know if you had healed your gut enough to try this? I can't imagine putting myself through such excruciating pain unless I knew definitively it would work, so what are some biomarkers to tell you're "fixed"?

Anonymous said...

Dr. Ayers,
i think Heisenbug says in the comment section of his latest article on this that the Clostridium Butyricum in AOR-3 is not the cure and has not much to do with Clostridia group. Most of its over my head though. Was wondering if you had a response or clarification. Maybe i misunderstand it all though.

( I have just purchased Garden of Life Primal Defense and Prescript Assist and think ill purchase AOR-3 next.)

Anonymous said...

Any idea which probiotics to try for refractory rhinits?

Raj said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Dr. B G said...

Prof Ayers

Wonderful post!

My 7 Steps would fill in and rehab the entire gut
http://drbganimalpharm.blogspot.com/2013/11/how-to-cure-sibo-small-intestinal-bowel.html

Personally i think 'a couple tablespoons' of potato starch may be harmful for some vulnerable guts without an entire spectrum of plant fiber.

Why? Because much of the very important immunoprotective beneficial gut bugs are missing in peanut allergy and other atopy conditions
--lactobacilli
--bifidobacteria
--enterococcus
--good e coli
--streptococcus

...not just the Clostridia ranks

The above don't eat RS2/potato starch and will starve out and be out competed by the stronger RS2-eaters.

I think people should be careful to avoid askewing the tender gut populations toward losing the above important strains for the protection in small intestines.

Bifido may 'glom on' to granules but many of the strains don't eat RS2 -- they prefer inulin and the byproducts from other fiber being broken down -- arabainogalactans, arabinoxylans (grains), and oligosaccharides.

Thanks for plugging one of my favorite probiotics -- C butyricum. It produces also IL 10 which is vital for repairing tolerance. great post!!

Dr Grace/BG

Vera said...

My daughter is mildly IgE allergic to ALL legumes, but she only gets digestive symptoms (tummy pain and D). We've been advised it's likely an allergy to the Gly-M-4 protein shared by legumes and birch pollen, which she is highly sensitized to. We've been told even if she has allergy shots to desensitize to birch pollen, she will always retain the legume allergy. Is Gly-M-4 one of the triplet immunogens? Can Clostridia have an effect on this type of allergy?

melanie c said...

Can you recommend a probiotic supplement on the market with this commensual - the only one i could find is in a lactose base and most people who have GI issues like this are lactose intolerant.

Tim Steele said...

this abstract shows exactly what you are proposing, Art. I'll see if I can get full text somehow.

http://www.pnas.org/content/111/36/13145.abstract?sid=f248d6b6-f7eb-49f2-a6fd-cd443497f56b

Environmentally induced alterations in the commensal microbiota have been implicated in the increasing prevalence of food allergy. We show here that sensitization to a food allergen is increased in mice that have been treated with antibiotics or are devoid of a commensal microbiota. By selectively colonizing gnotobiotic mice, we demonstrate that the allergy-protective capacity is conferred by a Clostridia-containing microbiota. Microarray analysis of intestinal epithelial cells from gnotobiotic mice revealed a previously unidentified mechanism by which Clostridia regulate innate lymphoid cell function and intestinal epithelial permeability to protect against allergen sensitization. Our findings will inform the development of novel approaches to prevent or treat food allergy based on modulating the composition of the intestinal microbiota.

Dr. Art Ayers said...

Hi Tim,
Heisenbug was referenced in a comment above. He wrote a post the day before mine and gives some more details from the paper.
http://mrheisenbug.wordpress.com/2014/09/08/clostridia-food-allergies-excellent-news-silly-conclusions/
I agree with his points and the authors express the typical medical prejudice that scientific insights must be monetized to be implemented.

I ran a little simplistically from Tregs to cure for allergy, just to get the major points across. I think that allergies and autoimmune diseases can be prevented and cured with diet and particular probiotics. It will take a little work, but the answer will be cheap and easy. The problem is that it replaces expensive and complex approaches that will be protected by the medical industry. Freeze dried fecal transplants would be a trivial cure right now and could be easily tested and implemented with a minimal infrastructure compared to current approaches in allergy and autoimmune therapy.

A more significant question is how to approach peanut allergies that are not just extensions of typical IgE/mast cell allergies. How are peanut allergies at two months of age explained in breastfed babies? And these are spreading responses from very little antigen applied to a local focus.

Dr. Art Ayers said...

Hi Raj,
1. The basic triplets are in the antigen/immunogen and are merely exploited or get swept into the immune system in the same way that auto antigens do.

2. I don't think that it is worth screening for these allergens, since a healthy system doesn't respond to them. Responders are immunocompromised and should get their immune systems fixed. Otherwise they will get other allergies or autoimmune diseases.

3. Pairs of basic amino acids can be grouped as triggers for allergy or autoimmunity in the same way as they are for nuclear translocation. Quads of basic amino acids will also be internalized and presented, and that is why proteins found in the nucleus are common as nuclear auto antigens associated with anti-nuclear antibodies, e.g. lupus.

I just think that Tregs prevent the turn on of the excessive state of antigen presentation and then fail to prevent the response to self or innocuous antigens. That is the normal functioning of tolerance. If tolerance is reestablished, then the presence of inappropriate IgEs should not be a problem. With tolerance, then autoimmunity should be reversed and allergies silenced.

When gut flora is repaired, IgEs to inappropriate foods cease to be a problem.

Peanuts may be acting in some cases without IgEs and that provides an additional unexplained level of complexity.

I am just posting on peanut allergies to exploit the paper showing that mouse peanut allergies can be avoided with functional Tregs. Clearly other defects in immunity are responsible for more complex and extreme peanut allergies.

Thanks for your comments and questions.

Dr. Art Ayers said...

Rhinitis,
I think that I would start with the same resistant starch and Clostridium combo (Probiotics3).

See Dr. B G comment below and her 7 step cure as a starting point for most allergies and autoimmune diseases.

Dr. Art Ayers said...

Dr. B G,
I was hoping that you would provide some more depth with your comments.
I think that the Clostridia supported by RS are a foundation group in the gut flora and that is why RS is not a typical soluble fiber.
Thanks for stopping by and expanding the discussion.

Dr. Art Ayers said...

Vera,
Allergies are not forever. They will only last as long as chronic inflammation and Treg deficiencies are maintained. Unfortunately, the medical industry doesn't fix these medical problems and focuses on symptoms instead. There is no money in repairing gut flora with diet and fermented foods.

I personally find screening for allergens and allergy shots a weak approach to treating allergies. Allergies are just symptoms of damaged gut flora and associated immune systems.

Your daughter should be cured of her allergies if her gut flora are repaired. I have many posts on the subject and Clostridia are a good place to start.

Thanks for your questions.

Dr. Art Ayers said...

Melanie,
It is relatively easy to fix lactose intolerance. I have written a post on it and research articles are published on the subject. It just amounts to eating small amounts of live yogurt for a couple of weeks. It is a simple transfer of genes from the dairy probiotic bacteria to the gut flora you already have. It has been fixed in everyone I know who has tried it.

You should be able to get by with just resistant starch. Most people already have a small population of Clostrida and the RS should build up and restart your Tregs.

Let me know what happens.

Dr. Art Ayers said...

Tigress35,
I would think that it would be unusual if you had a peanut allergy due to the typical IgE/Treg deficiency and didn't have some other autoimmune or allergy symptoms that could be monitored to see if repairing your gut flora started to repair your general health.

Constipation is another common indication of a severely damaged gut flora.

It seems that repairing your immune system would just make it less likely that you would experience any peanut allergy symptoms. I don't see the point of testing your progress by exposing yourself to peanuts.

Repairing your gut flora is no big deal. Once it is fixed, it is easy to maintain with a normal, healthy diet. No supplements are needed.

Thanks for your questions.

Dr. B G said...

Prof

YOu mean you want studies? lol

The gut is an ecosystem: everyone depends on one another and the ecology depends on inter-reliance. If one starves, many starve.

Rogues and renegades don't have a role in a healthy system. They thrive at the expense of many others.

So feeding a gut a high dose of potato starch is actually detrimentally which leads to imbalances and ecosystem disruption.

I don't agree with Mr Heisenbug: 'build it, and they shall come'. This is false in the world of massive gut extinctions. Humans are no longer connected to their symbionts and soil...

Thx again for a good post!

Marybeth said...

"So feeding a gut with a high dose of potato starch is actually detrimentally which is leading to imbalances and ecosystem disruptions."

I thought that potato starch was to help in feeding the gut flora in the large intestine which then helped to fix your compromised immune system. I thought it was one piece of the puzzle? If I am feeding my gut with a dose of 2T of potato starch along with AOR 3, Prescript Assist along with fermented foods, some RS food and whole foods, am I headed in the right direction? Now I am confused or am I misinterpreting the quote?
Marybeth

Raj said...
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Raj said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Anonymous said...

In regards to Marybeth's question to dr bg's response , I think what the dr's point is that feeding an already disrupted microbial ecosystem potato starch isn't going to magically make the missing species re-appear. The potato starch seems to be only effective for those who are lucky enough to have their clostridia species intact . For many , antibiotics have annihilated these clostridia species and they are most successfully replaced by fecal transplants administered in an anaerobic environment as they are extremely oxygen sensitive. Fermented foods , kefir , soil probiotics are extremely useful in filling in the gaps in the meantime but do not solve the problem of replacing these essential missing human strains . However some people are seeing results using certain clostridium probiotics so this may be a temp solution short of getting to the root of the problem via fecal therapy . Once these human strains have been re-introduced , the potato starch would be a great tool for providing food to the clostridium species to flourish

Raj said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Anonymous said...

Seems pretty clear now that Nikoley was indeed way out of his league with the nuts and bolts of this stuff. Wow.

Who in Hades would buy his upcoming book now that the true experts have been shunted aside??

Dr. Art Ayers said...

Anon,
I don't understand the criticism of Richard Nikoley at the vanguard of RS and Clostridium for gut health. He, Dr. Grace and Tim have promoted a major change in the practical, clinical and theoretical link between diet/fiber, gut flora and treatment of disease.

I will certainly buy their book as a foundational text on gut health.

They are right and cannot be expected to be comprehensive and predict future research. These are early days and medicine is way behind. All of these insights were in the biomedical literature 5-10 years ago and were ignored by the main stream medical establishment with the squandering of trillions of dollars and millions of lives. A few people pushing RS and probiotics have made great strides in the right direction. A few refinements are to be expected.

I am personally thankful that Nikoley pushed potato starch, even though he still seems a little rough around the edges.

Dr. Art Ayers said...

Grace,
I was hoping for your input and you generously provided it along with a needed link to your site.

Thanks for providing your clinical insights.

Raj said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Anonymous said...

Dr. Ayers,

Nikoley fell out with Tim and the doctor and is attempting to write the book by himself.

tolo said...

I've tried PS a few times in the last months and every time I get really gassy, which I guess happens to many. But in my case it's very foul smelling gas and I also get smelly, sticky stools. I did notice the same thing used to happen many years back when I would eat cooked and cooled potatoes/rice. Constipation is more likely overall unless I eat anything with FODMAPs or lactose. All of this is often accompanied by my usual suspects of brain fog, anxiety, hyperactivity, muscle twitches, allergy symptoms (nose and eyes), shortness of breath, frequent urination and fatigue.

Now I have suspected some sort of dysbiosis, lack of good bacteria or overgrowth of bad bacteria/yeast for a long time. This effect resistant starch has on me kind of points towards the same, no?

What would be the best plan of action here? Some sort of herbal antibiotic for a while and then probiotics before trying resistant starch again?

Also polyphenols and MSG (really all yeasts) leave me worse off with the same type of symptoms as above.

Anonymous said...

Hi Dr. Ayers.

Thanks for all the great post you've been publishing over the years. I've been reading for a long time and always appreciate your insight.

I hope you can take the time to answer my questions.

I had severe gut problems for many years (IBS, and gut dysbiosis with all of the symtoms of major yeast overgrowth). Also, acne, muscle fatigue, and more health issues that were probably related to the gut.

After Paleo+a lot of fermented food (e.g., sauerkruat, kefir, kimchi)+soil based probiotics+prebiotics (resistant starch and plenty of other fibers) I'm a lot better, but I'm still far from completely well. It seems that rarely a few days go by when I don't experience any gut issues. Very rarely diarrhea, major constipation, or anything of that sort. Mostly just mild pain, white coating on the tongue/stingy taste in my mouth, and a feeling that my gut isn't working correctly. Often it seems that new foods and bacteria from the environment can be a trigger.I also still get acne (although milder than before), and I frequently experience periods of fatigue.

Do you think my gut microbiota is still compromised? Could a lack of diversity be causing my problems?

Is it possible to rebuild a gut that's completely destroyed (severe dysbiosis/yeast overgrowth) just through diet+fermented foods+soil based probiotics+fermentable fibers? I have worked my way up with resistant starch, and I have now no problems digesting large amounts of the stuff (little gas or problems). However, I don't really feel that I'm healthy yet.

Is it possible that I could have some type of parasite? Or is it my general gut flora that's still dysbiotic? SIBO?

I'm considering a fecal microbiota transplant, but I would greatly appreciate your input before I do!

steve said...

Dr. Ayers:
China consumes tremendous amount of
peanuts with little to no allergy reactions; hard to see that their population has little to no gut issues.
Researchers in to peanut allergy believe that the preparation of the peanuts may be the issue.
Peanuts in China are mainly boiled vs. US where they are roasted. It is thought that the higher heat from roasting may alter the protein and make them potentially more allergenic for some.
Question: Can gut be repaired and allergy corrected at any age?
thanks

Anonymous said...

Anon,

I am a sufferer of the yeast syndrome/severe dysbiosis as well. A result of nearly 90 days of broad spectrum antibiotics 6 years ago.

I can tell you that fecal transplants, fermented veggies, RS, pectin, etc. have negligible effects on those with severe intestinal candidiasis. Bacterial re-inoculation of the intestines (colon specifically) is simply not possible when yeast overgrowth is present.

I have mastered every ferment you could name, RS and every pre-biotic (whole food and supplemental), avoided being overly hygienic, tried all probiotics (including the ones recommend on this site.), followed a good anti-inflammatory diet + fish oil, curcumin, etc. and even kissed dirty dogs :)

Gut bacteria mitigates toxic metal absorption (Mercury, Lead, Aluminum, etc.) which otherwise would cause immune suppression (cell mediated immunity) when improperly excreted and stored in the body.Heavy metal toxicity is so common in the dysbiotic community I'm very surprised Art has never mentioned this. I speak with hundreds of sufferers all around the world and have heard more stories then most doctors.

In many cases, immune suppression and any yeast overgrowth must be cleared before one can recover their flora unfortunately.

I think Dr. Ayers is brilliant but there is important information missing here in my opinion.



Dan

Anonymous said...

Dan, anon here. I think I've actually cleared the yeast overgrowth. It's just that it feels like my gut flora hasn't recovered completely...

Anonymous said...

nice link by Raj. Is that the same strain as n AOR-3 or would we benefit from using both products?

Anonymous said...

Dan,
Your story sounds a lot like mine - I have taken all of the steps you mentioned and have seen some major digestive success but still experience rashes, fatigue, muscle soreness, loss of strength, balance (only notice when doing yoga) and am now suspecting mercury and maybe yeast (CDSA showed NG though). May I ask what protocol you used for diagnosing mercury/metals and treating? Many thanks,
Kay

Anonymous said...

Same here Kay (but just rashes for me.. Acne) does anyone know of another brand with clostridium butyricum as aor3 has lactose and gives me breakouts. Thanks!

Lola said...

I've been following you for a long time now and have implemented almost everything you've suggested. I struggle with psoriasis, migraines, headaches, food intolerances, Hashi thyroiditis, acne, etc. I saw a lot of benefit taking probiotic three and increasing resistant starch. I still had to follow a very strict diet in order to feel good. I fermented my own foods from my garden all summer and have been eating those. I recently did a huge batch of dilly carrots (really huge) and have been eating them several times a day. For the first time in a long time, I indulged while at a friends house on things I can NEVER eat like cheese, chocolate, and fructose. I didn't get sick or have any psoriasis flare. I did some reading about raw carrots in particular and thought I would experiment with some things. I grate raw carrot and beet and raw garlic and apple cider vinegar every morning in an effort to get my bile flowing and clean out my small intestine from what some would say are endotoxins being absorbed (no idea if this is legitimate or not) . I also eat fermented carrots everyday and still take psyllium and potato starch. I then started some Bile salts and HCL with every meal and I don't want to sound dramatic or anything but I'm completely better. Cured. I can eat anything I want (but still eat an anti-inflammatory diet most of the time). I'm getting a lot of fiber everyday and it feels like I'm finally absorbing fat soluble vitamins. I'm not sure if I'm convinced psoriasis is autoimmune related. I think it was my gallbladder or liver or SIBO or something. Maybe someone else will have some insight but I am completely better. Thank you! I can go to a potluck and not feel like a horrible person for refusing everything. I can make cheese from our jersey cow and eat it if I want instead of just giving it to my kids. Thanks to this site, I've continued to search for the answer to all of my health problems that started after two years of high dose broad spectrum antibiotics 15 years ago. So many people thought I was wasting my time. They thought I should just take the steroids and prescription drugs for my migraines and psoriasis. I'm so glad I stuck with it. I can't believe I'm better! Here is the link to the study that got me looking into Bile salts.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14643904

Tim Steele said...

Hi, Art - I found a free protein alignment tool recently called "EMBOSS Water." I plugged your two shellfish allergy proteins in it and found they are nearly identical (78%).

I wonder if this similarity would be a better predictor of allergy than looking for basic triplets.

http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/psa/emboss_water/



Dr. Art Ayers said...

Hi Tim,
I think that everyone expects that recognition by proteins will involve the 3D shape of proteins, and that is usually true, but in the case of immunogen internalization and presentation to the immune system, the point is specificity through strong bonds. Presentation of antigens in the case of allergy and autoimmunity is a molecular screw up. Inflammation is supposed to sweep up antigens to sort out the pathogens, but instead, in the absence of counterselection by tolerance/Tregs, antigens are swept up by the heparan circulation system instead. The heparan circulation system sweeps heparan sulfate proteoglycans across the cell surface and back into the cell using polyamines for charge neutralization. This also sweeps hormone receptors and hormones together, since both have heparin-binding domains. Note that heparin binding does not require 3D shape fitting, but rather involves two events: complementary charges for weak initial ionic bonding (1kcal/mol), followed by much stronger bonding (20 kcal/mol) of flat, hydrophobic surfaces, e.g. heparin sulfate sugars to receptor basic amino acids.

The shapes of the fish proteins are the same, because they are all the same protein, with the same function in different organisms. Ragweed pollen, dust mite antigens, etc., all have very different shapes, but all have basic triplets on randomly folded surface loops. Mutation of the basic triplets eliminates the immunogenicity, i.e. the initial triple-based presentation, and eliminate them is allergens, but would maintain the immune response after initiation. The mutants could keep the allergic reaction going, but not start one.

The basic triplets also explain why all of the proteins in the nucleus, i. e. all of the nucleic acid binding proteins that have grouped basic amino acids for binding to nucleic acids, are also autoantigens. It also explains why basic triplets are found in all allergens and auto antigens, but are otherwise rare.

I hope that you are enjoying all of the molecular toys. Have you discovered CHIME and other molecular modeling software? Some of my students did some Autodocking with the first computational models of heparin binding at the National Center for Complex Carbohydrates at Athens GA. They also did the first computational modeling of some collagens. You might also be interested in tryptophan/arginine ladders and models of the nuclear translocation signal and transporters. That system uses basic tetrads.

Dr. Art Ayers said...

Lola,
I think that you are experiencing the metabolic interconversion of vitamin D, cholesterol and bile salts.

I would expect that you have a vitamin D deficiency that is related to inflammation as well as low dietary fat. The fat is needed both for cholesterol synthesis as well as bile production. BTW, hydroxyl cholic acid has nothing to do with HCL and all to do with the acid counterpart of bile salts. I think that most gall bladder problems are caused by inadequate dietary saturated fat.

I think that the paper you referenced merely shows that people with psoriasis have vitamin D deficiencies that are remedied by bile salts, which are part of the cholesterol/vitamin D pool.

Lowering inflammation by fixing diet and gut flora could permit the solar synthesis of vitamin D, which is blocked by chronic inflammation. This increase in vitamin D would provide relief from skin problems.

It makes me very happy that some of my suggestions have contributed to your improved health.

Lola said...

fascinating. I eat a diet very high in saturated fat such as ghee, home rendered lard, eggs and fatty meats. But, I do have chronically low Vitamin D even with supplementation. Whatever it is that is happening, I love it!

Gemma said...

@Lola

Wonderful to hear that some carrots and raw garlic helped you to regain health. Plus the bile salts, sure. I have been recommending eating raw garlic almost for any health troubles, so it is great to see someone experiencing so much benefits. Carrot have enormous liver cleanse effects as well.

I know what it feels like to get rid of life-long migraines, you must feel so much better.

By the way, beautiful kids. And the Yashica!

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elliebelly said...

Just was this. What do you think?

http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/to-your-health/wp/2014/09/21/could-the-dry-roasting-process-trigger-peanut-allergies-yes-says-a-new-oxford-study/

Anonymous said...

What probuotic do you recommend for a dairy, egg, peanut allergic child. I am overwhelmed with clearing her inflammation in presence of all these allergens. Also, getting a 6 year old to eat fermented foods is not easy feat. Thoughts?

Dean Reese said...

I agree that the best way to figure out a solution is to figure out the cause. That's why I think it's so important to figure out what is causing the allergies. Now knowing this, it's going to be so much easier trying to find a cure! Thanks for the help! http://myallergydrops.com/1/How+Drops+Work/page/175655

Anonymous said...

I had a good friend growing up that was allergic to peanuts. So I know exactly what you mean when you talk about severe allergies. It has started to go away as he gets older, but when he was young, he couldn't even be in the same room as peanuts. http://www.ncaac.com

Noel said...

Dr. Ayers,

Can you please elaborate on your following statement "the traditional cure for allergy by injection with small amounts of the allergen to convert from IgE to IgG, would convert a shellfish allergy into UC."

You make this statement in the paragraph below topomyosin sequence.

Does it mean that if someone indeed tries out this idea in order to cure the allergy, it will backfire and will result in Ulcerative colitis (which is otherwise, possibly benign, shellfish allergy).

Tim Steele said...

Hi, Art - Interesting article from down under. Cured most kids of a peanut allergy with peanut protein and Lactobacillus!

http://www.mcri.edu.au/news/2015/january/peanut-allergy/

"

Researchers from Murdoch Childrens Research Institute have successfully trialled a treatment for peanut allergies that could potentially provide a long term cure for allergy sufferers.

Over 60 peanut allergic children in the study were either given a dose of a probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, together with peanut protein in increasing amounts, or a placebo over 18 months to assess whether children would become tolerant to peanut.

The probiotic was a fixed daily dose, while the peanut oral immunotherapy was a daily dose of peanut protein starting at very low doses followed by a dose increase every two weeks until the maintenance dose (2 grams peanut protein) was reached. At the end of the treatment, the child's ability to tolerate peanut was assessed by a peanut challenge performed two to five weeks after stopping treatment.

Astoundingly, researchers found over 80% of children who received the oral immunotherapy treatment were able to tolerate peanut at the end of the trial, compared to less than 4% of the placebo group. This is 20 times higher than the natural rate of resolution for peanut allergy."

Michelle said...

Tim & Art
With reference to the new Australian peanut study findings (see Tim's comment above) using controlled exposure to peanuts confirming what's been advocated in this post. Just wondering your thoughts on why Lactobacillus rhamnosus intervention was chosen and shown to be effective (rather than Clostridium). Is there some kind of synergistsic relationship between the flora that might be happening here too? Michelle

Dr. Art Ayers said...

Tim,
I noticed that article when it was first reported. It is just what I expected. Tolerance is enhanced by the probiotic. The interesting part is that the tolerance appears to be specific for the antigen presented at the same time.

Thanks for the heads up.

Dr. Art Ayers said...

Michelle,
I would not expect that the gradual exposure or desensitization would be typically successful, because it presumes that the initial immune defect in tolerance that caused the allergy had been rectified. If the gut flora are not repaired, more allergies and autoimmune diseases will develop. If the gut flora is repaired, the allergy will still remain until the tolerance develops with renewed exposure to antigen in the presence of appropriate Tregs.

The particular probiotic was chosen because it was associated with tolerance.

Thanks for the questions.

kp said...

Very fascinating information, I really appreciate you sharing your knowledge.

My 8 year old daughter has been allergic to peanuts since age of 2.

When she was 5 years old, we got a dog. Since then, she developed allergy other legumes (soy, chickpeas, lentils, etc.) she grew up eating. Her reactions is GI trauma (stomach pains, vomiting, oral discomfort). She is able to eat white beans, green beans and black beans. Her skin test and blood work for food allergy isn't consistent with her reaction.

Allergist believes her allergy to dog (among other things) tipped her balance. We did not know she had high levels of environmental allergies (tree, animal dander, etc.) prior. She started environmental immunotherapy a couple of years ago and it has helped her allergies, the allergist is hoping that the immunotherapy might help her food allergies.

I've been giving her general probiotics (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus HA-111, Lactobacillus acidophilus HA-122, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum HA-179, Bifidobacterium bifidum HA-132,
Bifidobacterium breve HA-129) for the past month. Do I need to add Clostridia supplement to her diet?

Dr. Art Ayers said...

kp,
I of course don't give medical advice, especially about peanut allergies. All I do is try to explain how it works.

First off, most "food allergies" are actually food intolerances based on missing gut bacteria that are needed to digest particular food. Thus all of your daughter's intolerances are due to damaged gut microbiota. This suggests that she was treated with antibiotics or some other gut-damaging-medication prior to the onslaught of peanut allergy and other intolerances.

The evidence for efficacy of environmental immunotherapy is weak and from my explanation, it makes little sense.

Please read my other posts on how to repair gut microbiota. You will see that dairy probiotics, as you list them, might be of temporary benefit, but there are better sources of bacteria.

I would also recommend that other members of the family also start to repair their gut microbiota. Something also must be wrong with your dog. Doesn't he get out much?

Hygiene -- too much -- is usually a contributing problem. Your daughter needs to get down and dirty.

Let me know if this helps.

kp said...

Thanks for your thoughtful and helpful comment. Your post on "repair gut microbiota" is what led me to your post "peanut allergy cause and cure".

I am Korean so we eat tons of kimchi along with raw aged cheese and weekly green smoothies. We don't eat much processed food. I try to buy organic/local vegetable, meats and grain whenever possible.

My daughter gets weekly baths and plays outside all the time. As much germs as she is exposed to at school, she rarely gets sick. We also avoid hand sanitizers. She had one round of antibiotics in her life, a few years ago when she had a raging strep throat.

I suspect her weak gut flora is possibly due to her C-section birth (not by choice but she was breast fed for 15 months).

Can you recommend any other supplement she can be given to repair her GI system?

Hatha said...

Now i am taking cod liver oil.it is good ?or not good?

JulieP said...

So what happens if you dont have any Clostridia, or other needed bacteria,
in your small intestines due to possibly being wiped out by antibiotics?